International Institute of Space Law


Blaming Galileo: Liability for Damage Caused by Artificial Intelligence Operating Based on GNSS

Authors Ioana Bratu
Author's information

Ioana Bratu
Amsterdam Law & Technology Institute | ALTI, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
  • Abstract

      Due to the latest technological developments, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including Galileo, are being integrated as an essential component in artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Even though it is unlikely that a loss of signal will lead to an accident caused by an AI system, this scenario cannot be totally ignored. Recent incidents revealed a series of vulnerabilities that need to be addressed before more AI systems using GNSS signals can become active participants in our societies. In this context, it becomes clear that the most pressing issue is the one related to liability: who will be liable in case an accident is caused by an AI system due to a GNSS signal failure at a critical point during navigation? Taking into consideration the debates concerning Galileo’s potential acceptance of liability, this paper investigates if international space law is able to prevent potential liability gaps, thus avoiding situations where incidents occur and liability cannot be attributed.

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