The International Journal of Restorative Justice


Embracing uncertainty: A narrative case study on teacher-learner relationships through restorative justice practices in education

Keywords uncertainty, analogous processing, self-justification
Authors Zachary Schafer en Guy Trainin
Author's information

Zachary Schafer
Zachary Schafer is a Doctoral Student at the College of Education and Human Sciences of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.

Guy Trainin
Guy Trainin is Professor of Education at the University of California-Riverside, USA. Corresponding author: Zachary Schafer at
  • Abstract

      Restorative justice practices in educational settings recognising trauma and extreme life circumstances have become increasingly relevant since the COVID-19 pandemic and the growing impacts of climate change. This narrative inquiry uses Clandinin and Connelly’s suggestions for data collection and narrative structure to describe the interactions between one teacher and one learner over the course of two years in a programme created as an alternative to school suspension. Using a dual framework combining a variety of perspectives from restorative justice practices and Chen’s model of uncertainty management in science education, the researchers iteratively and thematically analysed the teacher-learner interactions. The storied results unveiled the layered complexities within ongoing restorative conversations and relationships.

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