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European Employment Law Cases

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Issue 2, 2019 Expand all abstracts
Case Reports

2019/12 Dismissal on grounds of sickness – Discrimination on grounds of disability? (AT)

Keywords Disability discrimination
Authors Peter C. Schöffmann
AbstractAuthor's information

    Austrian courts have to deal with an increasing number of cases concerning dismissal on grounds of (alleged) discrimination. The particular challenge is to a draw a conclusive distinction between the concepts of disability and sickness.


Peter C. Schöffmann
Peter C. Schöffmann is a teaching and research associate at the Institute for Austrian and European Labour Law and Social Security Law at Vienna University of Economics and Business, www.wu.ac.at/en/ars.
Case Reports

2019/13 A long-term functional impairment? (DK)

Keywords Disability Discrimination
Authors Christian K. Clasen
AbstractAuthor's information

    An employee’s functional impairment, which at the time of dismissal had had a duration of 11 months and with an uncertain prognosis, was not deemed a long-term one. For that reason, the Danish Western High Court found that the employee was not disabled within the meaning of the Anti-Discrimination Act or Directive 2000/78 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    According to the Labour Court of Mons, calculating the termination indemnity of a worker based on the reduced remuneration paid during a career break called ‘time-credit’ is compatible with EU law, despite the Meerts judgment regarding parental leave.


Dr. Gautier Busschaert
Dr. Gautier Busschaert is attorney at Van Olmen & Wynant in Brussels, www.vow.be.

    The Higher Administrative Court of Münster (Oberverwaltungsgericht, the ‘OVG’) has held that a minimum body height of 163 cm for applicants to the police service, irrespective of gender, is lawful. At least, this shall apply if the determination of a minimum body height standard is a suitability criterion for access to the police service. Minimum standards solely serve the purpose of ensuring fitness for service and result from a comprehensive investigation. The investigation in this case established that suitability for the police service can only be guaranteed from a height of 163 cm upwards.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is a partner at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Case Reports

2019/16 Pay discrimination based on gender in third level college (IE)

Keywords Gender discrimination
Authors Orla O’Leary
AbstractAuthor's information

    A recent decision by the Irish Workplace Relations Commission (WRC) found that a third level college lecturer had not been discriminated against on the grounds of gender in relation to her pay.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is a Senior Associate with Mason Hayes & Curran, www.mhc.ie
Case Reports

2019/17 Non-discrimination based on gender in the employment relationship (RO)

Keywords Gender discrimination
Authors Andreea Suciu and Gabriela Ion
AbstractAuthor's information

    A decision taken by an employer based on gender which respects the national legislation was considered discriminatory based on EU legislation.


Andreea Suciu
Andreea Suciu is the Managing Partner Suciu I The Employment Law Firm (https://suciu-employmentlaw.ro/).

Gabriela Ion
Gabriela Ion is an associate at Suciu I The Employment Law Firm (https://suciu-employmentlaw.ro/).

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Othmar Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.

Daniel Hilmer
Daniel Hilmer is an intern at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Sean Illing
Sean Illing is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Case Reports

2019/20 How to interpret the Posting of Workers Directive in the cross-border road transport sector? Dutch Supreme Court asks the ECJ for guidance (NL)

Keywords Private International Law, Posting of Workers and Expatriates, Applicable Law
Authors Zef Even and Amber Zwanenburg
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this transnational road transport case, the Dutch Supreme Court had to elaborate on the ECJ Koelzsch and Schlecker cases and asks for guidance from the ECJ on the applicability and interpretation of the Posting of Workers Directive.


Zef Even
Zef Even is a lawyer with SteensmaEven, www.steensmaeven.com, and professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Amber Zwanenburg
Amber Zwanenburg is a lecturer and PhD Candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Case Reports

2019/21 Supreme Court rules on liability distribution between transferor and transferee (FI)

Keywords Transfer of Undertakings, Dismissal/Severance Payment
Authors Janne Nurminen
AbstractAuthor's information

    A municipal federation took back a nursing home operation it had previously outsourced to a contractor. The Finnish Supreme Court held that a transfer of undertaking had taken place and the municipal federation (transferee) was liable to pay the employee compensation for the unlawful termination of the employment contract. Further, the Supreme Court held that the employee had also without a justifiable reason directed the claim for compensation towards the employer company (transferor/the old contractor) and for that reason was liable to pay the legal costs of the employer company.


Janne Nurminen
Janne Nurminen is a Senior Associate with Roschier, Attorneys Ltd in Helsinki, www.roschier.com.

    The Latvian Supreme Court recently used the ECJ Max Planck and Kreuziger judgments to explain how an employer can escape its obligation to compensate an employee for unused leave at the end of the employment relationship. The employer must prove that (a) it was possible for the employee to use the leave, and (b) the employer has in good time informed the employee that leave, if not used, might be lost and will not be compensated.


Andis Burkevics
Andis Burkevics is a senior associate with the Latvian office of law firm SORAINEN, www.sorainen.com.

    According to the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia (Vrhovno sodišče Republike Slovenije) (Supreme Court), reintegration of a formerly dismissed employee does not mean that the employment relationship had not been terminated earlier. Consequently, the employee is entitled to an allowance in lieu of the untaken leave at the time of the dismissal.


Petra Smolnikar
Petra Smolnikar is the founder and manager at PETRA SMOLNIKAR LAW, in Ljubljana, Slovenia, http://petrasmolnikarlaw.eu.
Case Reports

2019/24 Court of Appeal rejects Uber’s worker status appeal (UK)

Keywords Miscellaneous, Employment Status
Authors Jemma Thomas
AbstractAuthor's information

    Following an appeal by Uber against the Employment Appeal Tribunal’s (EAT) finding last year, which was featured in EELC 2018/9, that drivers engaged by Uber are ‘workers’ rather than independent contractors (reported in EELC 2018-1), the Court of Appeal (CA) has now upheld the EAT’s decision. The CA also upheld the finding of the Employment Tribunal (ET), which was featured in EELC 2017/10, that drivers are working when they are signed into the Uber app and ready to work (reported in EECL 2017-1). Uber has approximately 40,000 drivers (and about 3.5 million users of its mobile phone application in London alone) and so this decision has potentially significant financial consequences for the company.


Jemma Thomas
Jemma Thomas is a Senior Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Landmark Rulings

ECJ 14 May 2019, case C-55/18 (CCOO), Working Time

Federación de Servicios de Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) – v – Deutsche Bank SAE, Spanish case

Keywords working time
Abstract

    A law of a Member State, which does not require employers to set up a system enabling the duration of time worked each day by each worker to be measured, is in conflict with the provisions of the Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC and also with Article 31(2) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the Charter).

Landmark Rulings

ECJ 14 May 2019, case C-509/17 (Plessers), Transfer of Undertakings, Dismissal/Severance payment

Christa Plessers – v – Prefaco NV, Belgische Staat, Belgian case

Keywords Transfer of undertakings, Dismissal/severance payment
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 26 March 2019, case C-377/16 (EP Drivers), discrimination, other forms of discrimination

Kingdom of Spain – v – European Parliament, EU Case

Keywords Discrimination, Other forms of discrimination
Abstract

    Restriction of second language in a job application procedure to English, French and German in selection procedure is invalid.

Rulings

ECJ 11 April 2019, case C-254/18 (SCSI), Working Time

Syndicat des cadres de la sécurité intérieure – v – Premier ministre, Ministre de l’Intérieur, Ministre de l’Action et des Comptes publics, French case

Keywords Working time
Abstract

    Fixed reference periods are allowed, provided that there are measures in place to avoid

Rulings

ECJ 11 April 2019, case C-483/17 (Tarola), Social Security

Neculai Tarola – v – Minister for Social Protection, Irish case

Keywords Social Insurance
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 11 April 2019, joined cases C-29/18, C-30/18 and C-44/18 (Cobra Servicios Auxiliares), fixed-term work

Cobra Servicios Auxiliares, S.A. – v – José David Sánchez Iglesias, José Ramón Fiuza Asorey, Jesús Valiño López, Fogasa, Incatema, S.L., Spanish case

Keywords fixed-term work
Abstract

    It is objectively justified to grant fixed-term workers a lower severance payment than indefinite term workers, if the payment has other aims and is paid in a different context.

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-161/18 (Villar Láiz), Gender Discrimination, Social Insurance

Violeta Villar Láiz – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS), Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social (TGSS), Spanish case

Keywords Gender Discrimination, Social Insurance
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-24/17, (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund), Age Discrimination

Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, Gewerkschaft Öffentlicher Dienst – v – Republik Österreich, Austrian case

Keywords Age Discrimination
Abstract

    A new system of remuneration and advancement according to which the initial grading of the contractual public servants is calculated according to their last remuneration paid under the previous system of remuneration and advancement, which was based on discrimination on grounds of the age of the contractual public servants, is inconsistent with Articles 1, 2 and 6 of Directive 2000/78, read in combination with Article 21 of the Charter and inconsistent with Article 45(2) TFEU.

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-486/18 (Dodic), Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer

Jadran Dodic – v – Banka Koper, Alta Invest, Slovenian case

Keywords Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-396/17, (Leitner), Age Discrimination

Martin Leitner – v – Landespolizeidirektion Tirol, Austrian case

Keywords Age Discrimination
Abstract

    A new system of remuneration and advancement according to which the initial grading of the contractual public servants is calculated according to their last remuneration paid under the previous system of remuneration and advancement, that was based on discrimination on grounds of the age of the contractual public servants, is inconsistent with Articles 1, 2 and 6 of Directive 2000/78, read in combination with Article 21 of the Charter.
    National legislation which obstructs the effective judicial protection by reducing the scope of the review which national courts are entitled to conduct, by excluding questions concerning the basis of the transition amount, calculated according to the rules of the previous discriminatory remuneration and advancement system, is inconsistent with Article 47 of the Charter and Article 9 of Directive 2000/78.

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-494/17, (Rossato and Conservatorio di Musica F.A. Bonporti), Fixed-Term Work

Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR) – v – Fabio Rossato, Conservatorio di Musica F.A. Bonporti, Italian case

Keywords Fixed-Term Work
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-631/17 (Inspecteur van de Belastingdienst), Social Insurance

SF – v – Inspecteur van de Belastingdienst, Dutch case

Keywords Social insurance
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-486/18 (Praxair MRC), Gender Discrimination, Maternity and Parental Leave

RE – v – Praxair MRC SAS, French case

Keywords Gender Discrimination, Maternity and Parental Leave
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 13 June 2019, case C-664/17 (Ellinika Nafpigeia), Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer

Ellinika Nafpigeia AE – v – Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos and Others, Greek case

Keywords Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 15 May 2019, case C-677/17 (Çoban), Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

M. Çoban – v – Raad van bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut werknemersverzekeringen, Dutch case

Keywords Free movement, Work and residence permit
Abstract

Rulings

ECJ 13 June 2019, case C-317/18 (Correia Moreira), Transfer of Undertakings, Employees who Transfer/Refuse to Transfer, Employment Terms

Cátia Correia Moreira – v – Município de Portimão, Portuguese case

Keywords Transfer of Undertakings, Employees who transfer/refuse to transfer, Employment terms
Abstract

Pending Cases

Case C-609/17, Paid Leave

Terveys- ja sosiaalialan neuvottelujärjestö (TSN) ry – v – Hyvinvointialan liitto ry, reference lodged by the Työtuomioistuin (Finland) on 24 October 2017

Pending Cases

Case C-370/17, Social Insurance

Caisse de retraite du personnel navigant professionnel de l’aéronautique civile (CRPNPAC) – v – Vueling Airlines SA, reference lodged by the Tribunal de grande instance de Bobigny (France) on 19 June 2017

Pending Cases

Case C-32/18, Social Insurance

Tiroler Gebietskrankenkasse – v – Michael Moser, reference lodged by the Oberster Gerichtshof (Austria) on 18 January 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-37/18, Social Insurance

Vueling Airlines SA – v – Jean-Luc Poignant, reference lodged by the Cour de cassation (France) on 19 January 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-95/18, Social Insurance, Pension

Sociale Verzekeringsbank – v – F. van den Berg and H.D. Giesen, reference lodged by the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (Netherlands) on 9 February 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-96/18, Social Insurance

Sociale Verzekeringsbank – v – C.E. Franzen, reference lodged by the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (Netherlands) on 9 February 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-103/18, Fixed-Term Work

Domingo Sánchez Ruiz – v – Comunidad de Madrid (Servicio Madrileno de Salud), reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Contencioso-Administrativo No 8 de Madrid (Spain) on 13 February 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-168/18, Insolvency

Pensions-Sicherungs-Verein VVaG – v – Günther Bauer, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 5 March 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-171/18, Gender Discrimination, Pension

Safeway Ltd – v – Andrew Richard Newton, Safeway Pension Trustees Ltd, reference lodged by the Court of Appeal (United Kingdom) on 5 March 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-177/18, Fixed-Term Work

Almudena Baldonedo Martín – v – Almudena Baldonedo Martín, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Contencioso-Administrativo de Madrid (Spain) on 7 March 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-344/18, Transfer of Undertakings

ISS Facility Services NV – v – Sonia Govaerts, Euroclean NV, reference lodged by the Arbeidshof Gent (Belgium) on 25 May 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-203/18, Social Insurance

Deutsche Post AG, Klaus Leymann – v – Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, reference lodged by the Oberverwaltungsgericht für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (Germany) on 20 March 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-274/18, Part-time Work, Gender Discrimination

Minoo Schuch-Ghannadan – v – Medizinische Universität Wien, reference lodged by the Oberverwaltungsgericht für das Arbeits- und Sozialgericht Wien (Austria) on 23 April 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-366/18, Maternity and Parental Leave

José Manuel Ortiz Mesonero – v – Unión Temporal de Empresas Luz Madrid Centro, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Social de Madrid (Spain) on 5 June 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-396/18, Age Discrimination

Gennaro Cafaro – v – DQ, reference lodged by the Corte suprema di cassazione (Italy) on 15 June 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-397/18, Disability Discrimination

Ana María Páez Juárez – v – Nobel Plastiques Ibérica SA, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Social de Barcelona (Spain) on 15 June 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-428/18, Social Insurance, Pension

Jörg Paul Konrad Fritz Bode – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social and Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 28 June 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-429/18, Fixed-Term Work

Berta Fernández Álvarez, BMM, TGV, Natalia Fernández Olmos, María Claudia Téllez Barragán – v – Consejería de Sanidad de la Comunidad de Madrid, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Contencioso-Administrativo de Madrid (Spain) on 28 June 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-398/18, Social Insurance, Pension

Antonio Bocero Torrico – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social and Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 15 June 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-439/18, Part-time Work

OH – v – Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 2 July 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-522/18, Age Discrimination, Miscellaneous

DŚ – v – Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych Oddział w Jaśle, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 9 August 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-610/18, Social Insurance

AFMB Ltd and Others – v – Raad van bestuur van de Sociale verzekeringsbank, reference lodged by the Centrale Raad van Beroep (The Netherlands) on 25 September 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-588/18, Working Time, Paid Leave

Federación de Trabajadores Independientes de Comercio (FETICO), Federación Estatal de Servicios, Movilidad y Consumo de la Unión General de Trabajadores (FESMC-UGT), Federación de Servicios de Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO.) – v – Grupo de Empresas DIA, S.A., Twins Alimentación, S.A., reference lodged by the Audiencia Naciona (Spain) on 20 September 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-537/18, Age Discrimination, General Discrimination

YV – v – Krajowa Rada Sądownictwa, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 17 August 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-658/18, Fixed-Term Work, Annual Leave

UX – v – Governo della Repubblica italiana, reference lodged by the Giudice di pace di Bologna (Italy) on 22 October 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-668/18, Age Discrimination, Miscellaneous

BP – v – UNIPARTS sàrl, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 26 October 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-674/18, Transfer of Undertakings, Pension

EM – v – TMD Friction GmbH, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 30 October 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-670/18, General Discrimination

CO – v – Comune di Gesturi, reference lodged by the Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per la Sardegna (Italy) on 29 October 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-675/18, Transfer of Undertakings, Pension

FL – v – TMD Friction EsCo GmbH, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 30 October 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-681/18, Temporary Agency Work

JH – v – KG, reference lodged by the Tribunale ordinario di Brescia (Italy) on 31 October 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-705/18, Part-time Work, Gender Discrimination

Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria – v – SJ, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 13 November 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-760/18, Fixed-term Work

M.V. and Others – v – Local Authority Municipality of Agios Nikolaos, reference lodged by the Monomeles Protodikeio Lasithiou (Greece) on 13 November 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-801/18, Social Insurance

EU – v – Caisse pour l’avenir des enfants, reference lodged by the Conseil supérieur de la Sécurité sociale (Luxembourg) on 19 December 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-811/18, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination

KA– v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS) and Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social (TGSS), reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Canarias (Spain) on 21 December 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-802/18, Social Insurance

Caisse pour l’avenir des enfants – v – FV, GW, reference lodged by the Conseil supérieur de la Sécurité sociale (Luxembourg) on 19 December 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-804/18, Religious Discrimination

IX – v – WABE e. V., reference lodged by the Arbeitsgericht Hamburg (Germany) on 20 December 2018

Pending Cases

Case C-16/19, Disability Discrimination

VL – v – Szpital Kliniczny im. dra J. Babińskiego Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej w Krakowie, reference lodged by the Sąd Okręgowy w Krakowie (Poland) on 2 January 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-17/19, Social Insurance

Bouygues travaux publics, Elco construct Bucarest, Welbond armatures, reference lodged by the Cour de cassation (France) on 10 January 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-29/19, Social Insurance

ZP – v – Bundesagentur für Arbeit, reference lodged by the Bundessozialgericht (Germany) on 16 January 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-85/19, Gender Discrimination

Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria – v – RK, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 6 February 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-37/19, Paid Leave

CV – v – Iccrea Banca SpA Istituto Centrale del Credito Cooperativo, reference lodged by the Corte suprema di cassazione (Italy) on 21 January 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-135/19, Social Insurance, Pension

Pensionsversicherungsanstalt – v – CW, reference lodged by the Oberster Gerichtshof (Austria) on 20 February 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-211/19, Working Time

UO – v – Készenléti Rendőrség, reference lodged by the Miskolci Közigazgatási és Munkaügyi Bíróság (Hungary) on 6 March 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-181/19, Social Insurance

JD – v – Jobcenter Krefeld — Widerspruchsstelle, reference lodged by the Landessozialgericht Nordrhein-Westfalen (Germany) on 25 February 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-223/19, Social Insurance, Gender Discrimination, Pension

YS – v – NK, reference lodged by the Landesgericht Wiener Neustadt (Austria) on 13 March 2019

Pending Cases

Case C-240/19, Social Insurance

FA – v – Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social (TGSS), reference lodged by the Juzgado Contencioso-Administrativo No 2 de Ourense (Spain) on 20 March 2019