DOI: 10.5553/IISL/2020063004004

International Institute of Space LawAccess_open


GNSS Jamming and Spoofing under National and International Law

Keywords jamming, spoofing, international law, GNSS, electronic warfare
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    Jamming and spoofing can pose significant threats to space-based assets and the services provided by them. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are specifically vulnerable in this respect, considering the very low power of their signals and services. Numerous incidents of GNSS jamming and spoofing have already been reported. Cases of jamming are often not intentional and regularly have only short-term and geographically limited impacts. However, there are also intentional cases of jamming and spoofing is intentional by default. Due to their importance for military operations, for critical national infrastructure and key economic sectors, GNSS constitute primary targets of intentional jamming and spoofing. The paper analyses remedies in response to jamming and spoofing under international law as well as aspects of national law in relation to jamming and spoofing of GNSS signals.

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