International Institute of Space Law


Lunar Exploration: New Challenges for Export Control Compliance

Keywords space exploration, international cooperation, export control, regulations, compliance
Authors Anne-Sophie Martin
Author's information

Anne-Sophie Martin
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow in International Law and Space Law at Sapienza University of Rome. Department of Political Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome (Italy).
  • Abstract

      Space exploration missions on celestial bodies bring new challenges for export control, notably due to the fact that diverse actors will be involved, including commercial entities; and new technologies will be developed and used, as lunar surface power, in situ resource utilization, surface excavation and construction. Such scenarios raise many legal issues, especially with reference to export control regime. Insofar as lunar exploration will imply the exchange of technologies as well as information and data between the participants to the mission, possessing different nationalities, these activities would need to be properly licensed and authorized by the competent authority. The paper examines the export control systems in the United States and at European level, considering also the mechanism set up within the International Space Station’s agreements, and the Artemis Accords in order to put forwards the key elements to limit potential risks of export control violations in the case of space exploration programs.

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