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Article

Truly Exceptional? Participants in the Belgian 2019 Youth for Climate Protest Wave

Journal Politics of the Low Countries, Issue Online First 2022
Keywords protest, participation, inequality, climate change, Fridays For Future
Authors Ruud Wouters, Michiel De Vydt and Luna Staes
AbstractAuthor's information

    In 2019, the world witnessed an exceptional wave of climate protests. In this case study, we scrutinise who participated in the protests staged in Belgium. We ask: did the exceptional mobilising context of the 2019 protest wave also bring exceptional protesters to the streets? Were thanks to the unique momentum standard barriers to protest participation overcome? We answer these questions by comparing three surveys of participants in the 2019 protest wave with three surveys of relevant reference publics. Our findings show that while the Belgian 2019 protest was in many ways exceptional, its participants were less so. Although participants – especially in the early phase of the protest wave – were less protest experienced, younger and unaffiliated to organisations, our findings simultaneously confirm the persistence of a great many well-known socio-demographic and political inequalities. Our conclusion centres on the implications of these findings.


Ruud Wouters
Ruud Wouters, PhD, is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Antwerp. He studies protest participation and the impact of protest on media, public opinion and politics.

Michiel De Vydt
Michiel De Vydt is a PhD student at the University of Antwerp. He studies the micro-level predictors and outcomes of interpersonal protest recruitment.

Luna Staes
Luna Staes is a PhD student at the University of Antwerp. She studies how protest affects public opinion in the hybrid media environment. All authors are members of research group Media, Movements & Politics (M²P) at the political science department of the University of Antwerp.

    In 2019, the world witnessed an exceptional wave of climate protests. In this case study, we scrutinise who participated in the protests staged in Belgium. We ask: did the exceptional mobilising context of the 2019 protest wave also bring exceptional protesters to the streets? Were thanks to the unique momentum standard barriers to protest participation overcome? We answer these questions by comparing three surveys of participants in the 2019 protest wave with three surveys of relevant reference publics. Our findings show that while the Belgian 2019 protest was in many ways exceptional, its participants were less so. Although participants – especially in the early phase of the protest wave – were less protest experienced, younger and unaffiliated to organisations, our findings simultaneously confirm the persistence of a great many well-known socio-demographic and political inequalities. Our conclusion centres on the implications of these findings.

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Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Paid Leave
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CU, reference lodged by the Tribunale di Napoli (Italy) on 17 February 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Free Movement, Social Insurance
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Case C-134/22, Collective Redundancies

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Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Collective Redundancies
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Cases C-248/22, Free Movement

ZK and MS – v – The Minister for Justice and Equality, reference lodged by the High Court (Ireland) on 8 April 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Free Movement

    In 2021, Dutch courts held that both Deliveroo riders and Uber drivers are employees. Interestingly, the District Court of Amsterdam considered there to be a ‘modern relationship of authority’ between Uber drivers and Uber.


Diede Elshof
Diede Elshof recently graduated from Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Rulings

ECtHR 9 June 2022, app. no. 49270/11 (Savickis and Others – v – Latvia), Race, Nationality Discrimination

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Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Race, Nationality Discrimination
Abstract

    Very weighty reasons for exclusion of employment periods accrued in other former USSR states in state pension calculation for permanently resident non-citizens, in contrast to Latvian citizens: no violation of art. 14 ECHR

    Disciplinary proceedings for enforcement officer were unfair as the selection of disciplinary chamber members was not transparent.

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Cases C-190/22, Paid Leave

FI – v – Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, reference lodged by the Bundesarbeitsgericht (Germany) on 11 March 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Paid Leave
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Case C-57/22, Work and Residence Permint

European Commission – v – Czech Republic, action brought on 4 February 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Work and Residence Permit
Rulings

ECJ 30 June 2022, case C-63/21 P (Camerin/Commission), Miscellaneous

Laure Camerin – v – European Commission, EU case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Miscellaneous
Abstract

    Appeal dismissed against claim for damages for pension deductions because of seizure.

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Cases C-206/22, Paid Leave

TF – v – Sparkasse Südpfalz, reference lodged by the Arbeitsgericht Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany) on 17 March 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Paid Leave

    The Italian Supreme Court has held a collective redundancy to be unfair because the first information notice to the unions was incomplete and did not mention the reasons why the employees to be dismissed could not be assigned to another site of the company.


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Ornella Patanè is a partner at Toffoletto De Luca Tamajo e Soci, Milan.
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ECJ 2 June 2022, case C-587/20 (HK/Danmark and HK/Privat), Age Discrimination

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Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Age Discrimination
Abstract

    Setting an age limit for eligibility as a sector convenor constitutes age discrimination and is in breach of Directive 2000/78.

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Claire Toumieux
Claire Toumieux is partner at Allen & Overy, Paris.

Susan Ekrami
Susan Ekrami is counsel at Allen & Overy, Paris.

    Belgian law provides that replacement contracts that exceed two years become contracts of indefinite duration. The same rule applies for fixed-term contracts but not for the case where the employer alternates these two types of contracts. In the case at hand, the Belgian Constitutional Court considered Belgian law to be discriminatory on this point and invited the legislator to put an end to this difference of treatment. Awaiting this legislative change, labour courts and tribunals should consider alternation of fixed-term and replacement contracts for more than two years as a contract of indefinite duration.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney at Van Olmen & Wynant, Brussels.
Rulings

ECJ 16 June 2022, case C-328/20 (Commission – v – Austria (Indexation des prestations familiales)), Social Insurance, Free Movement

European Commission and intervening parties – v – Republic of Austria and intervening parties, Austrian case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Social Insurance, Free Movement
Abstract

    It is not allowed to vary benefits of workers with children in another member state depending on the price level in the country of residence of the children.

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