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    This article is part of a broader discussion about attaining a full-fledged child-friendly (criminal) justice. Attaining that goal is particularly challenging in cases of international parental abduction, due to the involvement of two branches of law. It is examined to what extent the current interaction guarantees a decision in the best interests of the child. More specifically, the implications of the adage le criminel tient le civil en état are scrutinised from a children’s rights perspective.
    The central research question reads: “to what extent can the adage le criminal tient le civil and état be upheld when further elaborating the best interests of the child in criminal law, more specifically in the interaction between civil and criminal law?” The research wants to contribute to the debate of the difficult triangular relationship between civil law, criminal law and children's rights law.
    In cases of child abduction, the link and interaction between the two procedures goes beyond the traditionally accepted scope of civil damages arising from a criminal offense. Nevertheless, both procedures following a parental abduction are based on the same facts and are inextricably linked, which means that they have to be assessed together, which means that they should be judged together. The question arises as to how the two parallel procedures can be coordinated better, now that it is clear that they may significantly influence each other.
    A full-fledged application of the adage means that a decision concerning the return of the child can only be handed down from the moment when the criminal proceeding (concerning the prosecution of the parent) is completed. It is immediately clear that this cannot be in the best interests of the child.
    It is argued that the adage must be abandoned or reversed to guarantee article 3 CRC. This statement is substantiated with arguments of both practical (referring to the time course) and fundamental (importance of the child best interets as a first consideration) nature. Thereby counterarguments are anticipated.
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    Dit artikel kadert binnen de bredere discussie inzake het streven naar een kindvriendelijk (straf)rechtssysteem. In zaken van internationale parentale ontvoering, waarbij twee rechtstakken betrokken zijn, is dit bijzonder uitdagend. Er wordt onderzocht in welke mate de huidige interactie tussen beide rechtstakken het belang van het kind waarborgt. Concreet wordt het adagium le criminel tient le civil en état vanuit een kinderrechten-perspectief aan een kritische blik onderworpen.
    De centrale onderzoeksvraag luidt: “in welke mate is het adagium le criminel tient le civil and état houdbaar in de verdere uitwerking van het belang van het kind in het strafrecht, meer bepaald in de wisselwerking tussen burgerlijk en strafrecht?” Het artikel wil aan het belang van het kind een duidelijkere positie geven in de moeilijke driehoeksverhouding tussen burgerlijk recht, strafrecht en kinderrechten.
    In zaken van kinderontvoering gaat het de toepassing van het adagium verder dan de traditioneel aanvaarde reikwijdte van civielrechtelijke schadevergoedingen die voortvloeien uit een strafbaar feit. Niettemin zijn beide procedures, volgend op een parentale ontvoering, gebaseerd op dezelfde feiten en onlosmakelijk verbonden met elkaar, wat betekent dat ze samen moeten worden beoordeeld. De vraag rijst hoe de twee parallelle procedures beter gecoördineerd kunnen worden, nu duidelijk is dat ze elkaar op een significante manier kunnen beïnvloeden.
    Onverkorte toepassing van het adagium betekent dat de burgerlijke beslissing betreffende de terugkeer van het kind pas kan plaatsvinden vanaf het moment dat de strafrechtelijke procedure (betreffende de vervolging van de ouder) is voltooid. Het is meteen duidelijk dat dit niet in het belang van het kind kan zijn.
    Er wordt geargumenteerd dat het adagium moet worden verlaten dan wel omgedraaid om artikel 3 IVRK te garanderen. Argumenten van zowel praktische (verwijzend naar de tijdsverloop) als fundamentele (belang van het kind als eerste overweging) aard onderbouwen dit standpunt. Daarbij wordt geanticipeerd op tegenargumenten.


Elise Blondeel MSc
Doctoraal onderzoekster Strafrecht & Rechten van het Kind (BOF-mandaat). Onderzoeksdomein: Internationale Parentale Ontvoering. Lid van het IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy) en het HRC (Human Rights Centre).

prof. dr. Wendy De Bondt
Professor Strafrecht/Rechten van het Kind/Jeugdrecht aan Universiteit Gent. Onderzoeksdomein: (Europees) strafrecht(elijk beleid) & Rechten van het Kind. Lid van het IRCP (Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy) en het HRC (Human Rights Centre).
Pending Cases

Case C-537/18, Age Discrimination, General Discrimination

YV – v – Krajowa Rada Sądownictwa, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 17 August 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Case Reports

2019/20 How to interpret the Posting of Workers Directive in the cross-border road transport sector? Dutch Supreme Court asks the ECJ for guidance (NL)

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Keywords Private International Law, Posting of Workers and Expatriates, Applicable Law
Authors Zef Even and Amber Zwanenburg
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this transnational road transport case, the Dutch Supreme Court had to elaborate on the ECJ Koelzsch and Schlecker cases and asks for guidance from the ECJ on the applicability and interpretation of the Posting of Workers Directive.


Zef Even
Zef Even is a lawyer with SteensmaEven, www.steensmaeven.com, and professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Amber Zwanenburg
Amber Zwanenburg is a lecturer and PhD Candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Pending Cases

Case C-668/18, Age Discrimination, Miscellaneous

BP – v – UNIPARTS sàrl, reference lodged by the Sąd Najwyższy (Poland) on 26 October 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-17/19, Social Insurance

Bouygues travaux publics, Elco construct Bucarest, Welbond armatures, reference lodged by the Cour de cassation (France) on 10 January 2019

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Sean Illing
Sean Illing is an Associate Solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Pending Cases

Case C-705/18, Part-time Work, Gender Discrimination

Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria – v – SJ, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 13 November 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Rulings

ECJ 8 May 2019, case C-631/17 (Inspecteur van de Belastingdienst), Social Insurance

SF – v – Inspecteur van de Belastingdienst, Dutch case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Keywords Social insurance
Abstract

Pending Cases

Case C-211/19, Working Time

UO – v – Készenléti Rendőrség, reference lodged by the Miskolci Közigazgatási és Munkaügyi Bíróság (Hungary) on 6 March 2019

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-609/17, Paid Leave

Terveys- ja sosiaalialan neuvottelujärjestö (TSN) ry – v – Hyvinvointialan liitto ry, reference lodged by the Työtuomioistuin (Finland) on 24 October 2017

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-658/18, Fixed-Term Work, Annual Leave

UX – v – Governo della Repubblica italiana, reference lodged by the Giudice di pace di Bologna (Italy) on 22 October 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-171/18, Gender Discrimination, Pension

Safeway Ltd – v – Andrew Richard Newton, Safeway Pension Trustees Ltd, reference lodged by the Court of Appeal (United Kingdom) on 5 March 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019

    The German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, the ‘BAG’) has held that pre-employment as a freelancer must be taken into account in relation to the number of years having been with a firm as a freelancer when assessing the legality of a fixed-term contract due to the character of the specific deployment.


Othmar Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.

Daniel Hilmer
Daniel Hilmer is an intern at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.
Pending Cases

Case C-177/18, Fixed-Term Work

Almudena Baldonedo Martín – v – Almudena Baldonedo Martín, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Contencioso-Administrativo de Madrid (Spain) on 7 March 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019

    The Higher Administrative Court of Münster (Oberverwaltungsgericht, the ‘OVG’) has held that a minimum body height of 163 cm for applicants to the police service, irrespective of gender, is lawful. At least, this shall apply if the determination of a minimum body height standard is a suitability criterion for access to the police service. Minimum standards solely serve the purpose of ensuring fitness for service and result from a comprehensive investigation. The investigation in this case established that suitability for the police service can only be guaranteed from a height of 163 cm upwards.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is a partner at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.
Rulings

ECJ 11 April 2019, joined cases C-29/18, C-30/18 and C-44/18 (Cobra Servicios Auxiliares), fixed-term work

Cobra Servicios Auxiliares, S.A. – v – José David Sánchez Iglesias, José Ramón Fiuza Asorey, Jesús Valiño López, Fogasa, Incatema, S.L., Spanish case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Keywords fixed-term work
Abstract

    It is objectively justified to grant fixed-term workers a lower severance payment than indefinite term workers, if the payment has other aims and is paid in a different context.

Pending Cases

Case C-366/18, Maternity and Parental Leave

José Manuel Ortiz Mesonero – v – Unión Temporal de Empresas Luz Madrid Centro, reference lodged by the Juzgado de lo Social de Madrid (Spain) on 5 June 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-344/18, Transfer of Undertakings

ISS Facility Services NV – v – Sonia Govaerts, Euroclean NV, reference lodged by the Arbeidshof Gent (Belgium) on 25 May 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Pending Cases

Case C-396/18, Age Discrimination

Gennaro Cafaro – v – DQ, reference lodged by the Corte suprema di cassazione (Italy) on 15 June 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Rulings

ECJ 13 June 2019, case C-664/17 (Ellinika Nafpigeia), Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer

Ellinika Nafpigeia AE – v – Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos and Others, Greek case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2019
Keywords Transfer of Undertakings, Transfer
Abstract

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