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Elina Morozova
Head of International & Legal Service, Intersputnik International Organization of Space Communications, morozova@intersputnik.com.

    This contribution provides an introduction to the main theme’s that are discussed in micro-, meso- and macroeconomics relating to family law. The occasion was a closed international expert seminar organized by RETHINKIN. (www.rethinkin.eu), a Scientific Research Network financed by the Research Foundation Flanders. The seminar concerned the compensation of household production between partners on the one hand, and intergenerational care for the elderly on the other. A report on the legal aspects is also available on this forum. This contribution first situates the economics of family in general, before discussing the main functions of practicing the economics of family law: (a) avoiding legislative mistakes, (b) using incentives to encourage altruistic behaviour, (c) using disincentives to discourage opportunistic behaviour and finally, (d) applying family economics as a benchmark for protective measures. It is concluded that employing the economics of family law encounters some difficulties, but that the possibilities it offers for legal development outweigh the difficulties.
    Deze bijdrage biedt een inleiding op de voornaamste thema’s die aan bod komen in de micro-, meso- en macro-familierechtseconomie. Aanleiding was een besloten internationaal expertenseminar dat werd georganiseerd door RETHINKIN. (www.rethinkin.eu), een wetenschappelijke onderzoeksgemeenschap gefinancierd door het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen. Dat seminar betrof de compensatie van huishoudelijke productie tussen partners enerzijds en intergenerationele zorg voor ouderen anderzijds. Een verslag van het juridische gedeelte is ook op dit forum beschikbaar. Deze bijdrage situeert eerst de familie-economie in het algemeen, vooraleer in te gaan op de belangrijkste functies van de beoefening van defamilierechtseconomie: (a) het voorkomen van verkeerde wetgevende keuzen, (b) het aanmoedigen in de wetgeving van altruïstisch gedrag, (c) het ontmoedigen in de wetgeving van opportunistisch gedrag en ten slotte (d) de onzichtbare hand als opmaat voor een minimale wetgevende bescherming. De conclusie luidt dat de beoefening van de familierechtseconomie op sommige moeilijkheden stuit, maar dat de mogelijkheden ervan voor een goede rechtsontwikkeling meer gewicht in de schaal leggen.


Prof. dr. Frederik Swennen
Frederik Swennen is a senior lecturer at the University of Antwerp and an attorney at the Brussels Bar.
ECJ Court Watch

Case C-614/15. Fixed Term Work

Rodica Popescu –v– Directia Sanitar Veterinara si pentru Siguranta Alimentelor Gorj, reference lodged by the Romanian Curtea de Apel Craiova

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2016
Keywords fixed term work

    An ‘independent contractor’ working for a company in a subordinate relationship should be considered as a de facto employee. In such a situation, the company and its legal representatives can be held liable for ‘concealed work’ and be subject to criminal penalties.


Charles Mathieu
Charles Mathieu is a lawyer with Jeantet in Paris, www.jeantet.fr.
Case Reports

2016/3 Supreme Court allows transferee to differentiate between ‘own’ and acquired employees (PL)

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2016
Keywords Differing the monthly wages after the workplace has been moved on to another employer
Authors Ph.D Marcin Wujczyk
AbstractAuthor's information

    Paying employees acquired by way of the transfer of an undertaking less than the transferee’s original staff not discriminatory. The Supreme Court recently came to this conclusion based on a rather daring interpretation of a provision of national law aimed at transposing an EU directive. Although Polish law obligates employers to treat employees who perform the same work equally regardless of personal characteristics, the provision at issue should be read more narrowly.


Ph.D Marcin Wujczyk
Marcin Wujczyk, Ph. D., is a partner with Ksiazek & Bigaj in Krakow, www.ksiazeklegal.pl.
ECJ Court Watch

Opinion of Advocate-General Bot of 25 November 2015 in case C-441/14. (Ajos), Age Discrimination

Dansk Industri, acting on behalf of Ajos A/S –v– Estate of Karsten Eigil Rasmussen, Danish case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2016
Keywords age discrimination
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 3 March 2016, case C-12/14. Free Movement – Social Insurance

European Commission –v– Republic of Malta

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2016
Keywords free movement – social insurance

    Under Irish law, an employee claiming compensation for constructive dismissal bears a high burden of proof. Failure to exhaust the employer’s grievance procedure before bringing such a claim to court is generally a recipe for failure. However, a CEO who brought such a claim without first going through the grievance procedure was recently awarded record compensation of € 1.25 million.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is a solicitor with Mason Hayes & Curran in Dublin, www.mhc.ie.

    The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has recently ruled on a Hungarian law suspending payment of civil servants’ pensions for the period during which they are employed in certain areas of the public sector. The ECtHR found this law to be discriminatory as it breaches Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) read in conjunction with Article 1, Protocol 1. Hungary, as the respondent State, is to pay pecuniary and non-pecuniary damages and procedural costs and expenses to the applicant, Mr Gyula Fábián. The judgment was delivered on 15 December 2015 and, if not appealed to the Grand Chamber, will cease to be appealable on 15 March 2016.


Dr. Ildiko Ratkai
Dr. Ildiko Ratkai is a lawyer with Ratkai Law Firm, www.ratkai.com in Budapest.
ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 12 January 2016, application 61496/08. (Bărbulescu), Fundamental Rights

Bărbulescu –v– Romania, Romanian case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2016
Keywords Fundamental Rights

    A 60-year old widow with a house but without income other than a small widow’s pension has successfully challenged legislation that moved the qualification age for state pension benefits from 65 to 67. A court has found that, in her particular case, the legislation constitutes an “individual and excessive burden” within the meaning of ECtHR case law on the First Protocol to the ECHR. The government was ordered to start paying the widow state pension from age 65 despite and contrary to the wording of the law.


Peter Vas Nunes
Peter Vas Nunes is an advocaat with BarentsKrans in The Hague, www.barentskrans.nl.

    Austrian law permits the dismissal of an employee during parental leave only in cases where the employer cannot reasonably be expected to continue the contractual relationship. The colour of a hair ribbon does not justify the termination of a young father’s employment as a bus driver.


Christina Hießl
Christina Hießl is invited professor at Yonsei University, Graduate School of Social Welfare, Seoul http://yonsei.ac.kr.

    A day care provider, Estro Groep B.V., (‘Estro’) went into pre-arranged (‘pre-pack’) receivership. Immediately afterwards, a large part of its business was taken over by another day care provider, Smallsteps B.V. (‘Smallsteps’). The latter did not offer employment to all of Estro’s employees, taking the position that the takeover did not constitute the transfer of an undertaking. This position was based on the fact that Estro was in receivership at the time of the takeover. According to the Dutch law transposing the Acquired Rights Directive, such takeovers are exempted from the rules on transfers of undertakings. A union and five of the employees whom Smallsteps had not offered jobs, relying on the wording of Article 5(1) of the Directive (“insolvency proceedings which have been instituted with a view to the liquidation of the assets”), claimed that they had become Smallsteps employees. The court referred questions to the ECJ for a preliminary ruling.


Peter Vas Nunes
Peter Vas Nunes is an advocaat with BarentsKrans in The Hague, www.barentskrans.nl.

    The employer may unilaterally stipulate or agree a salary with an employee that goes beyond the equal treatment standards, to the employee’s benefit if there is a material reason. The reason must either represent a competitive advantage compared to other employees, or the unequal treatment must be a substantial requirement necessary for the particular work.


Nataša Randlová
Nataša Randlová is a lawyer with the Prague firm Randl Partners, www.randls.com.

Alvaro Fabricio dos Santos
Alvaro Fabricio dos Santos, Advocacy General of the Union (AGU), Brazilian Association for Aeronautics and Space Law (SBDA), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil, alvaro.santos@agu.gov.br.

José Monserrat Filho
José Monserrat Filho, Brazilian Association for Aeronautics and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, jose.monserrat.filho@gmail.com.
Article

The Satellite and the Individual

The Legal Resolution of Remote Sensing

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2016
Authors P.J. Blount
Author's information

P.J. Blount
University of Mississippi School of Law.

Andrea J. Harrington
University of Mississippi School of Law, 481 Chucky Mullins Dr, Office 3068, University, MS, USA 38677, ajharrin@olemiss.edu.

Ali Akbar Golroo
Dr. Ali Akbar Golroo, Aerospace Research Institute, Iran, ali@ari.ac.ir.

Hamid Kazemi
Dr. Hamid Kazemi, Aerospace Research Institute, Iran, h.kazemi@ari.ac.ir.
Article

Time for Improvement

The 1986 UN Remote Sensing Principles in the Information Age

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2016
Authors Stefan A. Kaiser
Author's information

Stefan A. Kaiser
LLM (McGill). Wassenberg, Germany, stefanakaiser@aol.com. This paper represents the author’s personal opinion and shall not be attributed to any organization with which he is affiliated. © Copyright by Stefan A. Kaiser, 2016. Published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc., with permission. Stefan A. Kaiser, ‘Time for Improvement: The 1986 UN Remote Sensing Principles in the Information Age’ Proceedings of the 59th Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space (2016).
Article

Title IV of the U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act of 2015

A Critical Step Forward in Facilitating the Development of a Viable Space Infrastructure

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2016
Authors Sagi Kfir and Ian Perry
Author's information

Sagi Kfir
Sagi Kfir is General Counsel at Deep Space Industries

Ian Perry
Ian Perry is independent researcher.
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