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Article

Peaceful Purposes? Governing the Military Uses of Outer Space

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1 2016
Keywords space law, armed conflict, peaceful purposes, space warfare
Authors Steven Freeland
AbstractAuthor's information

    The development of satellite technology to enhance the exploration and use of outer space has continued at a rapid rate ever since the space age began in 1957. Satellites play a vital part of many aspects of daily life, and also with respect to the conduct of armed conflict. Most military leaders regard space-related technology as an integral element of their strategic battle platform. This reflects the changing technological nature of armed conflict, which challenges many aspects of international law, including the regulation of warfare. This is particularly the case with respect to the use of satellite technology. Moreover, the continuing development of this technology challenges the core of the ‘peaceful purposes’ doctrine that underpins the international regulation of outer space. This article discusses the application of the United Nations Space Treaties and the laws of war to the use of outer space during armed conflict and offers some reflections as to what is required to properly address the issue.


Steven Freeland
Professor of International Law, Western Sydney University; Visiting Professor, University of Vienna: Permanent Visiting Professor, iCourts Centre of Excellence for International Courts, Denmark; Member of Faculty, London Institute of Space Policy and Law; Director, International Institute of Space Law; Member of the Space Law Committee, International Law Association; Member, European Centre of Space Law.
Article

Some Legal Aspects of Space Natural Resources

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1 2016
Keywords space law, space mining, private property rights, United States Space Law, United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
Authors Ram S. Jakhu and Yaw Otu Mankata Nyampong
AbstractAuthor's information

    Critical natural resources on the earth will be depleted before the close of this century. As such, humanity must explore for additional natural resources in places beyond the earth (i.e. in outer space and on other planets) in order to sustain life on earth. An appropriate international regulatory regime would be indispensable if such exploration is to succeed and result in the orderly exploitation of space natural resources. Presently, the international regulatory regime governing the exploration and potential exploitation of space natural resources is inadequate and lacks sufficient clarity. This article addresses some important legal aspects of the exploration and exploitation of space natural resources both from an international and a national perspective. Specifically, it analyzes the relevant provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty and the 1979 Moon Agreement in addition to some recent regulatory developments occurring in the United States. Finally, it provides an outlook for the future legal regime that may be required to guarantee the orderly exploration and exploitation of space natural resources.


Ram S. Jakhu
Associate Professor, Institute of Air and Space Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Yaw Otu Mankata Nyampong
Senior Legal Officer, Pan African University, African Union Commission, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Article

13th Sir William Dale Memorial Lecture

Innovation and Continuity in Law Making

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3 2015
Authors Richard Heaton
Author's information

Richard Heaton
First Parliamentary Counsel and First Secretary to the Cabinet Office.
Article

Structure of Legislation: A Paradigm for Accessibility and Effectiveness

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3 2015
Keywords effectiveness of legislation, structure of legislation, accessibility of legislation, quality drafting, clarity
Authors Elohor Onoge
AbstractAuthor's information

    The aim of this article is to examine how the structure of legislation can nurture accessibility and effectiveness of legislation.
    It explores whether the legislative drafter in carrying out the task of drafting can nurture effective communication of the policy maker’s intent to the targeted audience by making use of the structure of legislation as a tool, to ensure the legislation is accessible to the end user, and foster effectiveness.
    The third and fourth stage of Thornton’s stages of the drafting process – design and composition – would be examined and also Peter Butt’s types of structure, which relates to the drafting of legal documents but would be applied in this paper, to the drafting of legislation.


Elohor Onoge
Elohor Onoge LLM is a Nigerian legislative drafter working for the Federal Parliament. Email: stephyrook@gmail.com.
Article

Sir William Dale Annual Memorial Lecture

Is Legislation Literature?

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3 2015
Authors Sir Geoffrey Bowman
Author's information

Sir Geoffrey Bowman
Sir Geoffrey was the First Parliamentary Counsel 2002-2006. He is a Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn, has an honorary LLD degree of the University of London, and is a Senior Associate Fellow of the IALS.
Article

Delegated Legislation in Nigeria: The Challenges of Control

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3 2015
Keywords delegated legislation, parliament, control, quality, parliamentary scrutiny
Authors Jemina Benson LL.M
AbstractAuthor's information

    In considering how society generally is regulated, most times focus is always on Acts of parliament that are passed by the legislative arm of government. However, delegated legislation is another aspect of law making that is of immense importance for the regulation of any given society. This form of lawmaking being a deviation from the norm has some challenges in terms of control. This article seeks to examine some of these challenges emphasising that adequate parliamentary scrutiny will prevent the harbouring of bad-quality legislation.


Jemina Benson LL.M
Jemina Benson LL.M (University of London) is a legislative drafter for Rivers State House of Assembly in Nigeria. Email: jeminabenson@yahoo.com.

    Statutory interpretation is quickly becoming the primary function of our courts. Ambiguity, unexpected scenarios, and drafting errors in legislation compound this challenging task, obliging many judges to turn to debate transcripts and other legislative materials in search of our elected representatives’ intent.
    Legislatures are intrinsically the products of the societies that create them, however, with each possessing a diverging structure and rules of procedure. These institutional differences affect bills’ drafting, consideration, and passage, and represent the mechanical process of how legislative bargains are translated into binding statutory text.
    Through the lenses of the United Kingdom Parliament and the United States Congress, the fundamental logic behind these institutions’ legislative bargains will be explored, assessing the impact of procedure and the interests that shape the enacting process. Parliamentary tradition emphasizes the foundational role of Her Majesty’s Government in managing virtually all legislation, maintaining a unity of purpose without compromise, amendment, or purposefully ambiguous provisions. Conversely, unique procedures and the multiplicity of veto players within Congress necessitates that compromise is a de facto requirement for passage. The diverging logic behind these legislative bargains offers powerful evidence that institutional characteristics have a dispositive impact on the utility of legislative materials in statutory interpretation.


Chris Land
Juris Doctor Student, 2016, University of Minnesota Law School. LL.M., with distinction, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London; B.S., summa cum laude, Florida State University.
Article

Financial Crime Prevention and Control

The Reforms of a ‘Unique’ Jurisdiction under EU Law and International Standards

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 4 2015
Keywords Vatican financial system, money laundering, terrorist financing, 3rd AMLD, FATF Recommendations
Authors Francesco De Pascalis
AbstractAuthor's information

    Between 2011 and 2014, the Vatican City State (VCS) experienced a reform process which dramatically changed its financial system. The process is still ongoing, and its goal is to establish an anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing (AML/CTF) system. Importantly, this system will be based on the AML/CTF EU legislation and international standards. These facts are noteworthy. First, the reforms cast light on the main Vatican financial institutions against the background of the secrecy that has always characterized their functioning and business operations. Accordingly, there is now more transparency and information about the Vatican financial system. Second, the relevant EU law and international standards are tools through which the VCS can, for the first time, join an international network of countries, sharing and applying the same rules against money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF). This is of extraordinary importance for a jurisdiction like the VCS, which has never referred to European or international principles in its rule-making. In particular, the openness to EU law and international standards stimulates investigating the reasons behind these changes and the impact that these sources of law are having on a jurisdiction regarded as ‘unique’ in the world.


Francesco De Pascalis
PhD in Law, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies University of London; Research Fellow, University of Zurich, Law Faculty. All errors and omissions remain the author’s.
Article

Corruption and Controls

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 4 2015
Keywords corruption, controls, inspections, administration, regulation
Authors Maria De Benedetto
AbstractAuthor's information

    Anti-corruption is a relatively recent policy which calls for controls. They represent the most effective means in rebalancing institutions which are not fully informed: ‘secrecy’, in fact, characterizes infringements and corrupt behaviour.
    Alongside criminal investigation, administrative controls and administrative investigation should be considered crucial because they intervene at early stages, when corruption has been developing, allowing real prevention.
    This article analyses some points that we should remember in order to connect controls and corruption correctly: first of all, controls have a hybrid nature: not only are they a way to combat or prevent corruption but also they are real occasions for corrupt transactions; furthermore, controls are a cost and administrative capacity of control is limited; moreover, planning controls is not a simple task; and finally, sanctions following controls must be effective in order to deter.
    The article also analyzes what is needed in matters of corruption controls, with special reference to good rules (aiming at a legal system with fewer but better rules, rules which work as incentives, rules capable of designing good institutions). There is also a need for good practices (in order to improve the understanding of corruption processes, to reduce controls, to cooperate in investigating cases of corruption).
    Finally, the article warns about the fact that corruption controls produce more bureaucracy and that early detection of corruption would mean, in this perspective, to make a diagnosis of ‘corruptibility’ starting from rules.


Maria De Benedetto
Full Professor, Roma Tre University.
Article

‘Living in Sin’: A Reform Proposal for Financial Relief Following Cohabitation Breakdown

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 4 2015
Keywords cohabitation, financial relief, family trusts, common law marriage
Authors Luke Tattersall
AbstractAuthor's information

    The number of adults choosing to cohabit has increased by over 67% since 1991. Despite such a dramatic shift in social norms, the law governing financial relief upon relationship breakdown remains inept to handle the significant increase in cohabitants. This article examines how the current system of family trusts constitutes an archaic and inadequate means of dividing cohabitants’ assets. The law of trusts fails to reflect the subtleties of personal relationships, often resulting in financial injustice. The author goes on to consider the notion of common law marriage, highlighting how despite attempts by both the government and policy makers to dispel the concept it nevertheless remains prevalent throughout the United Kingdom. The core counterargument to extending financial relief is that it would undermine the institution of marriage and obscure the boundaries between cohabitant and spouse. This article critically examines this claim, adopting cross-jurisdictional analysis by considering the experiences of Scotland, Ireland and Australia where cohabitants have greater financial rights before concluding that the argument fails to stand up to scrutiny. The author ends by advancing a series of reforms designed to vindicate cohabitants, resulting in a fairer distribution of assets and bringing legal recognition to the United Kingdom’s largest growing family unit.


Luke Tattersall
Luke Tattersall is a trainee-barrister and Research Assistant in Law at Durham University. All opinions, errors and omissions are solely those of the author.
Article

Commonalities in the English Tort and French Criminal Wrong of Defamation

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 4 2015
Keywords defamation, tort, crime, comparative, path dependence
Authors Mathilde Groppo
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article considers the extent to which the nature of the regulation – tortious or criminal – influences the substantive content of the rules in England and France. It argues that the English and French regulatory features are the result of path dependence. Consequently, while they have led to substantive differences, they do not prevent the emergence of a shared approach to the wrong.


Mathilde Groppo
PhD Candidate, King’s College London.
Article

Can Imprisonment Be Cheaper? The Case for Private Prisons

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 4 2015
Keywords costs, criminal law, law and economics, private prisons, privatization
Authors Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko
AbstractAuthor's information

    Custody is the most expensive method of punishment in the Western world, as compared to other alternatives. Although expensive, prison is an indispensible instrument to deal with judgement proof or dangerous offenders. Hence, by using the law and economics approach, this article explores prison privatization as an instrument for less expensive incarceration. This method has the potential to reduce the prison costs without hampering its quality. However, a restructuring of the current contracts is needed to achieve this purpose. The attention given to the topic of private prisons by the law and economics scholars, especially in the European context, is limited, and this article attempts to fill this gap. The present article applies arguments from the bureaucracy and political science literature to explain the inefficiencies of public prisons. Subsequently, the potential problems of private prisons are presented through the principle-agent model and solutions are offered.


Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko
Rotterdam Institute of Law & Economics (RILE), Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Article

The Incorporation of Intentional Parentage by Female Same-Sex Couples into National Parentage Laws

A Comparison between Danish and Dutch Law

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2015
Keywords same-sex parentage, family law, comparative law
Authors professor Christina G. Jeppesen de Boer and professor Annette Kronborg
AbstractAuthor's information

    The incorporation of intentional parentage by female same-sex couples in Danish and Dutch law in 2013 has taken place on the premises of the existing parentage law. In Dutch law, the second mother may automatically become the legal parent (formal relationship – anonymous donor) or she may become the legal parent in all other situations by recognition with consent of the mother. In Danish law, the second mother’s parentage may be established in a simple registration procedure, if she has consented to the act of assisted reproduction prior to treatment. When use has been made of a known donor there is no direct presumption favouring the known donor or the second mother in either country. Danish law provides a contractual understanding to be made prior to treatment while Dutch law depends upon the initiative of the parties and to whom the mother gives consent to recognition – with subsequent discretionary power of the court to modify the result. The main difference we associate with a systemized specific legislative approach (Denmark) and discretionary powers of the court to correct the outcome (the Netherlands).


professor Christina G. Jeppesen de Boer
C.G. Jeppesen de Boer is a legal researcher and assistant professor at the University of Utrecht, Molengraaff Institute for Private Law associated with UCERF (Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law).

professor Annette Kronborg
A. Kronborg is a legal researcher and associate professor at the University of Copenhagen associated with the Centre for Studies in Legal Culture.
Article

Pursuing the Best Interest of Children in Non-Traditional Families

A Comparative Overview

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2015
Keywords best interest of the child, equality, non-traditional families, new bills, comparative analysis
Authors Denise Amram
AbstractAuthor's information

    The need to build a legal paradigm corresponding to the current evolution of society is one of the most important challenges that family lawyers are facing in the last years. In this regard, this paper illustrates the new Italian, French, and Irish reforms aimed at pursuing the best interest of the child within non-traditional families.


Denise Amram
Postdoc researcher in Comparative Private Law, DIRPOLIS Department – Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e Perfezionamento Sant’Anna – Pisa, Italy and Italian Qualified Solicitor.
Article

Identifying the Impetus behind the Europeanization of the Private International Law Rules on Family Matters and Succession

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2015
Keywords area of freedom security and justice, EU citizenship, free movement of persons, international family matters, international succession
Authors Jacqueline Gray PhD
AbstractAuthor's information

    The EU is currently in the midst of unifying the private international law rules on family matters and succession. This article seeks to explain this expansion into essentially non-economic territory. In order to do so, it presents the ideological, problem-based, and legal considerations that appear to lie at the heart of legislative action in these fields. However, as will become apparent, it is the role of the Member States that is crucial in guiding this process.


Jacqueline Gray PhD
PhD Candidate, Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law, Utrecht University.
Article

To Recognize or Not to Recognize? That Is the Question!

Motherhood in Cross-Border Surrogacy Cases

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2015
Keywords cross-border surrogacy, motherhood, private international law, ordre public, European Human Right Convention
Authors Stefanie Sucker PhD
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article describes the status quo in cross-border surrogacy cases, more specifically how national courts deal with the recognition of parenthood validly established abroad. As the recognition of motherhood is deemed to violate the national ordre public, the solutions so far, i.e. recognition of fatherhood and adoption, will be examined. Moreover, the arguments for an alleged ordre public-violation concerning motherhood will be presented. Finally, the question whether the European Human Right Convention has an impact on the interpretation of the best interest of the child will be answered.


Stefanie Sucker PhD
The author is currently writing a (German) PhD on the topic of cross-border surrogacy. She analyses private international and procedural law questions of German, Dutch, French and Austrian law. Thus, reference as examples will be made to these legal systems.
Article

Legal Motherhood and Parental Responsibility

A Comparative Study on the Tensions between Scientific Knowledge, Social Reality and Personal Identity

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2015
Keywords motherhood, child’s right to identity, baby-box, secret birth, confidential birth
Authors Prof. dr. Christine Budzikiewicz and Dr. Machteld Vonk
AbstractAuthor's information

    For the past 15 to 20 years there has been intense discussion in many European countries how mothers in a crisis situation can be prevented from abandoning or even killing their new born babies. Baby-boxes have been installed in a number of countries and/or possibilities for anonymous birth have been discussed or introduced. The Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed concern over these developments and stated that both developments infringe on the child’s right to know its origins. Both Germany and the Netherlands have taken steps to protect new mothers and their babies in crisis situations by introducing a form of secrecy surrounding the mother’s identity. In Germany this has taken the form of a recently introduced law that keeps the birth and the identity of the mother confidential, in the Netherlands this has taken the form of a protocol drawn up by professionals which aims to keep the birth and the mother’s identity secret. This article will compare and critically discuss these developments in Germany and the Netherlands.


Prof. dr. Christine Budzikiewicz
Prof. dr. Christine Budzikiewicz is professor of law at the Institute of Comparative Law of Marburg University in Germany, <www.uni-marburg.de/fb01/lehrstuehle/zivilrecht/budzikiewicz>.

Dr. Machteld Vonk
Dr. Machteld Vonk is assistant professor of child and family law at the Child Law Department of Leiden University Law School in The Netherlands, <http://law.leiden.edu/organisation/private-law/child-law/staff/mjvonk.html>.
Article

Article 15 Brussels II-bis

Two Views from Different Sides of the Channel

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2015
Keywords international jurisdiction, transfer of proceedings, international parental responsibility
Authors Ian Curry-Sumner and Maria Wright
AbstractAuthor's information

    Article 15 Brussels II-bis provides for the transfer of jurisdiction from one Member State to another. This contribution examines the conditions and practice surrounding the application of Article 15 Brussels II-bis from two jurisdictions, namely the Netherlands, and England and Wales. From this comparison it is clear that there are evident divergent viewpoints as to the approach to be taken with Article 15 Brussels II-bis. This article is, therefore, aimed at bringing those differences in approach to the forefront so as to assist the European legislature in the ongoing evaluation of the Brussels II-bis Regulation.


Ian Curry-Sumner
Ian Curry-Sumner is the owner of Voorts Legal Services (a legal consultancy firm specialized in training and advice in the field of international family law based in Dordrecht, the Netherlands).

Maria Wright
Maria Wright is a family law solicitor based at Freemans Solicitors in London, United Kingdom.
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