Search result: 227 articles

x
Article

Is Africa Ready for Electronic Commerce?

A Critical Appraisal of the Legal Framework for Ecommerce in Africa

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2011
Authors Nnaemeka Ewelukwa
AbstractAuthor's information

    It remains a daunting but not insurmountable challenge to actualize broad-based long term economic development in Africa. Statistics indicate that the poverty level in the continent is very high and the continent’s contribution to global trade remains very low in terms of export outflows. While acknowledging the negative aspects of Africa’s development however, it is important to note that the future may yet become brighter if key steps are taken by law and policy makers in the continent to put in place laws and policies that can facilitate the development process. One of the ways in which economic development can be facilitated is to significantly boost Africa’s contribution to global trade. In this regard, it has been noted that ‘After falling by 2.5% in 2009, export volumes of African countries are expected to increase on average by 3.2% in 2010 and by 5% in 2011.


Nnaemeka Ewelukwa
Dr. iur. (Queen Mary, London), Senior Teaching Fellow, International Trade Law, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (SOAS).

    Les propos qui suivent revendiquent une double impertinence. Celle de la répétition car ils reprennent des points de vue déjà exprimés par d’autres, rappelant une vérité d’évidence reconnue par beaucoup, concernant le projet d’uniformisation du droit des contrats dans l’espace OHADA.1xActes du colloque ‘Harmonisation du droit OHADA des contrats’, Ouagadougou, 15-17 novembre 2007, disponible à <www.ohada.com/doctrine/Ohadata/D-09-26>. L’impertinence de l’originalité également en essayant de présenter sous un regard nouveau l’ambition d’intégration du droit des contrats exprimée par les autorités de l’Organisation pour l’Harmonisation du Droit des Affaires en Afrique.

Noten


Mbissane Ngom
Professeur de l’Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Sénégal).
Article

Unification of General Contract Law in Africa

The Case of the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2011
Authors Stefan Vogenauer
AbstractAuthor's information

    The organizers of this conference kindly invited me to speak on the unification of general contract law and on one specific instrument in this area: the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (‘PICC’).1xSee UNIDROIT International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2004, Rome, April 2004, available at <www.unidroit.org/english/principles/contracts/principles2004/integralversionprinciples2004-e.pdf>. I would like to use the 14 minutes allocated to my paper to touch on three issues. First, I will give a short overview of the PICC for those who are not yet familiar with this instrument. Secondly, I will look at the use of the PICC in legal practice. And thirdly, I will assess the potential of the PICC for making a contribution to the unification of general contract law in Africa. Overall, I can afford to be brief and limit myself to introductory comments because Ms Mestre of UNIDROIT will cover much of the ground in greater detail.

Noten


Stefan Vogenauer
Professor of Comparative law at the University of Oxford.

    Dans le demi-siècle écoulé depuis l’accession aux indépendances, les pays africains ont affronté des processus complexes qui ont mis au devant des priorités la construction politique et institutionnelle interne et leur reconnaissance dans le concert des nations du monde. Dans le même temps, loin de profiter de la croissance globale qu’ont connue les pays avancés, les populations du continent africain – et des pays les moins avancés de la planète – ont souffert d’une dégradation progressive de leurs conditions de vie.


Frédérique Mestre
Fonctionnaire principale, UNIDROIT. Contribution à la 1ère Conférence africaine sur le droit commercial international, Douala (Cameroun), 13-14 février 2011. Les opinions ici exprimées sont celles de l’auteur et n’engagent pas UNIDROIT.

    When discussing regional and global unification of sales law it seems appropriate to briefly mention the globalisation of trade. The overall development of international trade over the last half century is startling. Although in Fall 2008 and persisting into 2009 there was a sharp decline worldwide – in 2009 alone the drop amounted to 12% –, preliminary figures indicate a strong rebound, with value of trade in 2010 said to expand by 9,5% compared to 2009. WTO figures for 2008 indicate that worldwide merchandise export trade amounted to 15,717 billion USD and worldwide merchandise import trade to 16,127 billion USD. These figures are approximately 100 times more than 45 years ago and more than 10 times the level at the time of the signing of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (“CISG”) in 1980. The average annual growth from 2000 to 2008 was more than 5% for both exports and imports worldwide. No longer is the highest growth found in North America, Europe and Japan, but instead it is the transition economies from different points of the globe – particularly China, Brazil, Russia and some African countries. Disregarding the figures for 2009, in Africa the annual growth of exports amounted to 18% in 2007 and 28% in 2008, that of imports to 23% in 2007 and to 27% in 2008.


Ingeborg Schwenzer
Dr. iur (Freiburg, Germany), LL.M. (Berkeley, USA), Professor for Private Law, University of Basel, Switzerland.
Article

OHADA’s Proposed Uniform Act on Contract Law

Formal Law for the Informal Sector

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2011
Authors Claire Moore Dickerson
AbstractAuthor's information

    A great deal of effort and a great deal of erudition have gone into the preparation of the OHADA Uniform Act on Contract Law (preliminary draft) [hereinafter draft Uniform Act on Contract Law].1xThe participants at this conference need no introduction to OHADA. The following sources may be helpful to Anglophones seeking basic information about this uniform system of business laws, which includes both statutes (“uniform acts”) and institutions, and is effective in 16 West and Central African countries (with a 17th having signed and ratified the constitutive treaty). Books: C. Moore Dickerson (Ed.), Unified Business Laws for Africa: Common Law Perspectives on OHADA, 2009; Mator et al., Business Law in Africa: OHADA and the Harmonization Process, 2nd edn, 2007; M. Baba Idris (Ed.), Harmonization of Business Law in Africa: The Law, Issues, Problems & Prospects, 2007. Websites, all of which have English-language content, including unofficial translations of the principal OHADA documents: <www.ohada.com>, which also contains scholarly articles; and <www.juriscope.org>, which provides English-language commentary for three of the uniform acts. Also useful is OHADA’s official website, <www.ohada.org>; however, as of this writing (25 February 2011), it describes its English-language portion as still under construction.
    During OHADA’s legislature, the Council of Ministers, adopted at its meeting (13-15 December 2010) revisions to two of its eight existing statutes, namely the Uniform Act on the General Commercial Law (“Acte Uniforme relatif au Droit Commercial Général”, originally adopted 17 April 1997, 1 JO OHADA 1 (1 October 1997), available at <www.ohada.com>, hereinafter sometimes “UAGCL”) and the Uniform Act on Secured Interests (the official French title is “Acte Uniforme portant Organisation des Sûretés,” originally adopted 17 April 1997, 3 JO OHADA 1 (1 October 1997), available at <www.ohada.com>), and adopted a new Uniform Act on Cooperatives, not yet in effect. Because the revised and new texts have not yet been published in their official form as of this writing (25 February 2011), all discussions of the uniform acts, and in particular of the UAGCL, are based on the texts in force prior to that meeting, except for the references at infra notes 10, 19 & 22. The acronym “OHADA” stands for “Organisation pour l’Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires”, sometimes translated as “Organization for the Harmonization in Africa of Business Laws”.
    An important but simple observation is that by far the greater part of the economies in OHADA’s current and prospective member-countries is located in the informal sector. This reality inevitably will have an impact on the implementation of the proposed uniform act currently under discussion. To be sure, the uniform act, if adopted, will affect agreements in the formal sector. The focus here, however, is the informal sector, for which the draft uniform act is already remarkably suited, given its broad and clear fundamental principles, and its respect for local norms.

Noten

  • 1 The participants at this conference need no introduction to OHADA. The following sources may be helpful to Anglophones seeking basic information about this uniform system of business laws, which includes both statutes (“uniform acts”) and institutions, and is effective in 16 West and Central African countries (with a 17th having signed and ratified the constitutive treaty). Books: C. Moore Dickerson (Ed.), Unified Business Laws for Africa: Common Law Perspectives on OHADA, 2009; Mator et al., Business Law in Africa: OHADA and the Harmonization Process, 2nd edn, 2007; M. Baba Idris (Ed.), Harmonization of Business Law in Africa: The Law, Issues, Problems & Prospects, 2007. Websites, all of which have English-language content, including unofficial translations of the principal OHADA documents: <www.ohada.com>, which also contains scholarly articles; and <www.juriscope.org>, which provides English-language commentary for three of the uniform acts. Also useful is OHADA’s official website, <www.ohada.org>; however, as of this writing (25 February 2011), it describes its English-language portion as still under construction.
    During OHADA’s legislature, the Council of Ministers, adopted at its meeting (13-15 December 2010) revisions to two of its eight existing statutes, namely the Uniform Act on the General Commercial Law (“Acte Uniforme relatif au Droit Commercial Général”, originally adopted 17 April 1997, 1 JO OHADA 1 (1 October 1997), available at <www.ohada.com>, hereinafter sometimes “UAGCL”) and the Uniform Act on Secured Interests (the official French title is “Acte Uniforme portant Organisation des Sûretés,” originally adopted 17 April 1997, 3 JO OHADA 1 (1 October 1997), available at <www.ohada.com>), and adopted a new Uniform Act on Cooperatives, not yet in effect. Because the revised and new texts have not yet been published in their official form as of this writing (25 February 2011), all discussions of the uniform acts, and in particular of the UAGCL, are based on the texts in force prior to that meeting, except for the references at infra notes 10, 19 & 22. The acronym “OHADA” stands for “Organisation pour l’Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires”, sometimes translated as “Organization for the Harmonization in Africa of Business Laws”.


Claire Moore Dickerson
LL.M. in Taxation (New York University), J.D. (Columbia), Professor of Law and Breaux Chair in Business Law (Tulane University), permanent visiting professor (University of Buea).

    L’uniformité du droit exerce un attrait idéologique sur les esprits épris de systématisation. Comme le souligne le Professeur Delmas-Marty, «le droit a horreur du multiple. Sa vocation c’est l’ordre unifié et hiérarchisé, unifié parce que hiérarchisé». Cette uniformité apparaît comme un idéal de simplicité, de méthode, d’ordre.L’uniformité étant rarement spontanée, l’intervention du législateur est nécessaire. Dans cette optique, l’unification législative apparaît comme un travail d’élaboration scientifique de la solution la plus appropriée aux besoins communs: un droit le plus efficace et le plus simple possible. L’uniformité semble ainsi être porteuse de simplification. Cette simplification résulte de la substitution d’un droit unique à la complexité du système juridique. L’uniformité permettrait aussi d’assurer l’effectivité du droit car «il semble que la multiplication des normes, leur instabilité, leur excessive complexité faite de sédiments successifs pas ou peu cohérents, rend presque impossible un respect scrupuleux du droit».


Gurvan Branellec
Docteur en droit.

    L’arbitrage OHADA est gouverné par deux instruments adoptés par le Conseil des Ministres de l’OHADA à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), en date du 11 mars 1999; il s’agit de l’acte uniforme relatif au droit de l’arbitrage (ci-après AUA), qui régit l’arbitrage de droit commun dans les pays membres de l’OHADA, et du Règlement d’arbitrage de la Cour Commune de Justice et d’Arbitrage (ci-après Règlement d’arbitrage CCJA), qui fixe dans le détail les règles de l’arbitrage CCJA, dont les grands traits sont tracés par le titre IV du Traité OHADA.


Gaston Kenfack Douajni
Docteur en Droit (Paris I, Sorbonne), Professor of Business and Arbitration Law (OHADA Law) at the National School of Administration and Magistracy – Yaounde.

Christian Kirchner
Professor Dr. iur. Dr. rer. pol. Dr. h.c. Christian Kirchner, LL.M. (Harvard), Humboldt University Berlin, School of Law / School of Business and Economics.

Diego Zannoni
University of Padua, Italy

C. Doldirina
Article

The Accommodation of Minority Customs in Sweden

The Islamic Law of Inheritance as an Example

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords multiculturalism and law, private international law, Islamic law of inheritance
Authors Dr. Mosa Sayed
AbstractAuthor's information

    Sweden, as well as many of the other member states of the European Union, has transformed into multicultural societies. In these increasingly culturally differentiated societies demands are raised by immigrant groups for the recognition of their cultural identity and uniqueness. Minority customs may in some cases conflict with fundamental values in the state law. In this article the author is elaborating on the Swedish private international law rules and the multicultural dilemma in relation to the Islamic law of inheritance, which is often considered to belong to those areas of the Islamic law that express principles that are incompatible with the core values of Swedish law.


Dr. Mosa Sayed
Mosa Sayed is Doctor of Laws at Faculty of Law, Uppsala University and researcher within the multidisciplinary research programme Impact of Religion: Challenge for Society, Law and Democracy, founded as a Centre of Excellence at Uppsala University.
Article

The ECJ Ruling in Cartesio and Its Consequences on the Right of Establishment and Corporate Mobility in the European Union

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords Cartesio, right of establishment, Corporate mobility
Authors Prof. dr.sc. Siniša Petrović and Tomislav Jakšić
AbstractAuthor's information

    Before Cartesio, the case law of the European Court of Justice on freedom of establishment mainly considered company immigration situations, i.e. legal entities moving into another Member State. Cartesio is the first major ruling on company emigration since the 1988 decision in Daily Mail. Consequently, much was expected from Cartesio, notably that it would confirm a company’s right to directly invoke its freedom of establishment in emigration scenarios. However, this was not the case. Although Cartesio introduced some new concepts into the freedom of establishment case law like the concept of company conversion, the freedom of establishment actually took a step backward. This effectively resulted in almost complete disregard of the freedom of establishment in emigration situations - unlike in immigration situations. This partial denial of freedom of establishment, one of the fundamental freedoms of Community law, would seem urge the continuation of work on the new 14th Company Law Directive. In light of the current ECJ case law, only a legislative approach would seem suitable to guarantee non-discrimination in the ongoing regulatory competition between Member States which apply the registered seat theory and those which apply the administrative (real) seat theory.


Prof. dr.sc. Siniša Petrović
Prof. dr. sc. Siniša Petrović is a full professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Zagreb.

Tomislav Jakšić
Tomislav Jakšić is a Junior Researcher at the Faculty of Law of the University of Zagreb.

Gerhard Wagner
Dr. Gerhard Wagner LL.M. is Professor of Fundamentals of Private Law at Erasmus University, Rotterdam, as well as, Professor of German and European Private Law and Civil Procedure at the University of Bonn.

Alberto Alemanno
Associate Professor of Law, HEC Paris, and Editor of the European Journal of Risk Regulation. The author wishes to thank two anonymous referees for their valuable inputs. Comments are welcome at: <alemanno@hec.fr>.

Bernd van der Meulen
B.M.J. van der Meulen is Professor of Law and Governance at Wageningen University, the Netherlands <http://www.law.wur.nl/uk>; Chairman of the Dutch Food Law Association <http://www.nvlr.nl>; Director of the European Institute for Food Law <http://www.food-law.nl>; member of the Board of Directors of the European Food Law Association <http://www.efla-aeda.org>; and member of the Editorial Board of the European Food and Feed Law Review <http://www.lexxion.eu/effl>. This contribution elaborates on previous publications, such as: Bernd van der Meulen and Menno van der Velde, European Food Law Handbook (2008), available at: <http://www.wageningenacademic.com/foodlaw>; Irene Scholten-Verheijen, Bernd van der Meulen and Theo Appelhof, Landkaart levensmiddelenrecht (2009); and Bernd van der Meulen, Harry Bremmers, Leon Geyer, Nidhi Gupta and Hans Bouwmeester, Nano Food Regulation: Towards an Adaptive Regulatory Infrastructure for Nanotechnology Applications in the Food Sector (forthcoming). Many thanks to Prof. Margaret Rosso Grossman, Anna Szajkowska and Irene Scholten-Verheijen for their valuable comments and suggestions. Comments are welcome at <Bernd.vanderMeulen@wur.nl>.
Article

Economic and Political Impacts of National Space Legislation in Europe

Legal Mechanisms for Encouraging Space Commerce

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2009
Authors M. Sánchez Aranzamendi and K.-U. Schrogl

M. Sánchez Aranzamendi

K.-U. Schrogl

C. Doldirina
Article

The Need for a Uniform Law System Protecting Intellectual Property Rights in Outer Space

Private International Law Regarding Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2008
Authors H. van Traa-Engelman

H. van Traa-Engelman

A. Froehlich
Showing 161 - 180 of 227 results
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 12
You can search full text for articles by entering your search term in the search field. If you click the search button the search results will be shown on a fresh page where the search results can be narrowed down by category or year.