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Research Notes

Paid Digital Campaigning During the 2018 Local Elections in Flanders

Which Candidates Jumped on the Bandwagon?

Journal Politics of the Low Countries, Issue 3 2019
Keywords local elections, candidates, campaign spending, digital campaigning
Authors Gunther Vanden Eynde, Gert-Jan Put, Bart Maddens e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    This research note investigates the role of paid digital campaigning in the 2018 local elections in Flanders. We make use of the official declarations which candidates are legally required to submit. In these declarations, candidates indicate whether and how much they invested in online campaigning tools during the four months preceding the elections. We collected data on a sample of 3,588 individual candidates running in the 30 municipalities of the Leuven Arrondissement. A multilevel logistic regression model shows that the odds of spending on digital campaigning increases among incumbent aldermen and local councillors. The latter finding supports the normalization thesis of digital campaigning. The results also show that scale is important – the more potential voters a candidate has, the higher the odds that the candidate invests in digital tools.


Gunther Vanden Eynde
Gunther Vanden Eynde is a doctoral researcher at the KU Leuven Public Governance Institute. His research interests include political finance, campaign spending and the social media campaigns of Belgian political parties and their candidates.

Gert-Jan Put
Gert-Jan Put is a Senior Researcher at the Research Center for Regional Economics, KU Leuven. His research focuses on candidate selection and intra-party competition, and has been published in Political Behavior, Party Politics and Electoral Studies.

Bart Maddens
Bart Maddens is a professor of political science at the KU Leuven Public Governance Institute His research interests include political finance, elections and multi-level systems. His work has been published in West European Politics, Party Politics and Electoral Studies.

Gertjan Muyters
Gertjan Muyters is a doctoral researcher at the KU Leuven Public Governance Institute. His research focuses on candidate turnover and political careers.
Human Rights Practice Reviews

The Russian Federation

Journal East European Yearbook on Human Rights, Issue 1 2019
Authors Igor Bartsits, Oleg Zaytsev and Kira Sazonova PhD
Author's information

Igor Bartsits
Igor Bartsits is the Director of IPACS RANEPA, Doctor of Law, Professor, Honoured Lawyer of the Russian Federation.

Oleg Zaytsev
Oleg Zaytsev is the Dean of the School of Law, Doctor of Law, IPACS RANEPA.

Kira Sazonova PhD
Kira Sazonova is the Assistant Professor, Ph.D. in International Law, Ph.D. in Politics, IPACS RANEPA.
Article

Reconciliation potential of Rwandans convicted of genocide

Journal The International Journal of Restorative Justice, Issue 2 2019
Keywords Rwanda, genocide, perpetrators, posttraumatic stress, reconciliation
Authors Kevin Barnes-Ceeney, Laurie Leitch and Lior Gideon
AbstractAuthor's information

    This study examines the reconciliation potential of Rwandans incarcerated for the crime of genocide. Utilising survey data from 302 male and female prisoners incarcerated in the Rwandan Correctional System, this study explores genocide perpetrators’ depression, anxiety, anger-hostility and somatic symptoms, levels of posttraumatic stress, degree of social support and attitudes towards unity and reconciliation. The data demonstrate that engaging in killing can have deep psychological impacts for genocide perpetrators. The data indicate that although more than two decades have passed since the genocide, perpetrators are experiencing high levels of genocide-related posttraumatic suffering. Perpetrators are persistently re-experiencing genocide, purposefully avoiding thoughts and memories of the genocide, and experiencing physical and emotional arousal and reactivity. The sample had a strong desire for all Rwandans to live in peace and unity. There is, however, an urgent need for physical and mental health interventions, as well as services that facilitate the rebuilding of family relationships well in advance of release. Improving the physical and mental well-being of both perpetrators of the genocide and victims can only be a positive development as Rwanda continues to build a unified, reconciled and resilient future.


Kevin Barnes-Ceeney
Kevin Barnes-Ceeney is Assistant Professor at the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven, USA.

Laurie Leitch
Laurie Leitch is Director, Threshold GlobalWorks, New York, USA.

Lior Gideon
Lior Gideon is Professor of Criminal Justice at the Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, USA.
Law Review

2019/1 EELC’s review of the year 2018

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2019
Authors Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Filip Dorssemont e.a.
Abstract

    For the second time, various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Filip Dorssemont

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Francesca Maffei

Niklas Bruun

Anthony Kerr

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Daiva Petrylaite

Andrej Poruban

Stein Evju

Bart Maddens
Bart Maddens is gewoon hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor de Overheid van de KU Leuven en was van 2001 tot en met 2007 lid van de redactie van Res Publica, van 2005 tot en met 2007 als hoofdredacteur.
Article

Access_open Peer mentoring justice-involved youth: a training model to promote secondary desistance and restorative justice among mentors

Journal The International Journal of Restorative Justice, Issue 2 2018
Keywords Peer mentoring, justice-involved youth, formerly incarcerated, secondary desistance, training programmes
Authors Mayra Lopez-Humphreys and Barbra Teater
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article introduces a mentoring programme for justice-involved youth that utilises the unique and often overlooked resources offered by adults with a history of incarceration, and the innovative training model that aims to promote secondary desistance and restorative justice among the mentors. An examination of the generative role of peer mentoring and its overlap with restorative justice as a healing process that provides opportunities for offenders to make indirect amends that contribute to the social rehabilitation of their communities is presented. An overview of the history and anticipated aims of mentoring programmes for justice-involved youth is provided, followed by a discussion of the importance of secondary desistance in peer mentoring programmes and a review of the elements, conceptual underpinnings and anticipated benefits of the training programme for the mentors. The training programme is argued to offer approaches that support the primary and secondary desistance-orientated changes and the reparative work needed within the mentor.


Mayra Lopez-Humphreys
Mayra Lopez-Humphreys is Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, City University of New York College of Staten Island, New York, United States of America.

Barbra Teater
Barbra Teater is Professor, Department of Social Work, City University of New York College of Staten Island, New York, United States of America. Contact author: mayra.humphreys@csi.cuny.edu.

Bart van Leeuwen
Bart van Leeuwen is universitair docent politieke theorie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Hij verricht onderzoek naar thema’s die samenhangen met verstedelijking, waaronder intercultureel stadsburgerschap, segregatie en dakloosheid.

Michael Merry
Michael Merry is hoogleraar filosofie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, gespecialiseerd in ethiek en onderwijs.
Article

Three Tiers, Exceedingly Persuasive Justifications and Undue Burdens

Searching for the Golden Mean in US Constitutional Law

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2-3 2018
Keywords Equal protection, franchise, fundamental rights, intermediate scrutiny, rationality review, reproductive rights, right to vote, strict scrutiny, substantive due process, undue burden, US constitutional law
Authors Barry Sullivan
AbstractAuthor's information

    When government action is challenged on equal protection grounds in the US, conventional wisdom holds that the courts will analyse constitutionality under one of three standards of review: rational basis, intermediate scrutiny and strict scrutiny. In substantive due process cases, two standards are applied: rational basis and strict scrutiny. In fact, careful study shows that the levels of scrutiny are actually more plastic than conventional wisdom would suggest and have shifted over time. In addition, courts sometimes confuse matters by appearing to introduce new tests, as when Justice Ginsburg characterized the government’s burden in Virginia v. United States, 518 U.S. 515 (1996) in terms of “an exceedingly persuasive justification”. Finally, while the Court originally applied strict scrutiny review to reproductive rights in Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), the Court has subsequently applied an ‘undue burden’ test in that area. A similar trend can be seen in voting rights cases. While the Court long ago characterized the right to vote as “fundamental … because preservative of all rights”, Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, 370 (1886), and the modern Court initially applied strict scrutiny to voting rights, the Court has now moved away from strict scrutiny, just as it has in the reproductive rights area. This erosion of constitutional protection for voting rights is the central concern of this article. The focus here is on the way these tests have evolved with respect to limitations on the right to vote. The article begins with a description of the three-tiered paradigm and then considers the US Supreme Court’s development of the ‘undue burden’ test as a substitute for the strict scrutiny standard in the reproductive rights jurisprudence. The article then considers the Court’s analogous move away from strict scrutiny in voting rights cases. That move is particularly troubling because overly deferential review may subvert democratic government by giving elected officials enormous power to frame electoral rules in a way that potentially games the system for their own benefit. Building on existing scholarship with respect to reproductive rights, this article suggests a possible way forward, one that may satisfy the Court’s concerns with the need for regulation of the electoral process while also providing the more robust protection needed to protect the right to participate meaningfully in the electoral process.


Barry Sullivan
Cooney & Conway Chair in Advocacy and Professor of Law, Loyola University Chicago School of Law. The author is grateful to Jeffrey W. Gordon, Pilar Mendez and Tara Russo for expert research assistance, to Julienne Grant, Loyola University Chicago School of Law Reference Librarian, for additional research assistance, and to Michael Kaufman, Alfred S. Konefsky, Juan Perea, H. Jefferson Powell, Henry Rose, and Winnifred Fallers Sullivan for many helpful comments on an earlier draft. The author also wishes to thank the Cooney & Conway Chair Fund and the Loyola University School of Law Faculty Research Fund. The usual dispensation applies. This volume (The EU Bill of Rights’ Diagonal Application to Member States. Ed. Csongor István Nagy) was published as part of the research project of the HAS-Szeged Federal Markets ‘Momentum’ Research Group.

Dr. Beatriz Barreiro Carril
Lecturer of International Law (Rey Juan Carlos University).
Law Review

Access_open 2018/1 EELC’s review of the year 2017

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2018
Authors Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Zef Even e.a.
Abstract

    This is the first time we have produced a review of employment law cases from the previous year, based on analysis by various of our academic board members. But before looking at their findings, we would first like to make some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Zef Even

Amber Zwanenburg

Daiva Petrylaitė

Petr Hůrka

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Erika Kovács

Jan-Pieter Vos

Andrej Poruban

Luca Ratti

Niklas Bruun

Francesca Maffei
Article

Het financiële gedrag van politieke partijen

Een verkennend onderzoek op basis van de Belgische case

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 2018
Keywords party spending, financial behaviour, spending behaviour, dealignment, professionalisation, Belgium
Authors Jef Smulders and Bart Maddens
AbstractAuthor's information

    In recent decades processes of partisan dealignment and professionalisation have taken place. But how do political parties adapt their financial behaviour to these changes in the political-electoral system? We answer this question by analysing two indicators. First, we examine to what extent parties spend their available financial means (saving versus spending strategy). Secondly, we study how parties spend their available financial means (bureaucratic versus electoral strategy). Based on these two indicators we set up a two-dimensional model describing the financial behaviour of political parties, which we apply to data of Belgian parties in the period 1999-2015. The results illustrate that most parties generally adopt a bureaucratic saving strategy, but that there has not been a linear evolution between 1999 and 2015 towards a specific financial behaviour as a reaction to dealignment and professionalisation.


Jef Smulders
Jef Smulders is aspirant van het Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen (FWO), verbonden aan de KU Leuven, Instituut voor de Overheid. Hij verricht voornamelijk onderzoek naar partij- en campagenfinanciering en naar de profielen van verkiezingskandidaten. Zijn doctoraatsproefschrift handelde over de uitgaven van politieke partijen in Europa.

Bart Maddens
Bart Maddens is gewoon hoogleraar in de politieke wetenschappen aan de KU Leuven, Instituut voor de Overheid. Zijn onderzoeksagenda richt zich hoofdzakelijk op partijen campagnefinanciering, politieke carrièrepatronen, de profielen van verkiezingskandidaten en multilevelsystemen.
Article

Transferring Rights of Satellite Imagery and Data: Current Contract Practice and New Challenges

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2018
Keywords geospatial, remote sensing, Incoterms, intellectual property
Authors Jordi Sandalinas Baró
AbstractAuthor's information

    The present work refers to the challenge of understanding the emerging contractual paradigm referred to satellite imagery and data online commerce. Issues like the role of consent in new online contract forms will be analyzed. In this regard, the formation of online contracts requires the existence of consent given by the parties to the contract. The formation of contracts known as “click-wrap”, “browse-wrap” and “shrink-wrap” agreements constitute a new paradigm in the tradition of online commerce related to satellite imagery and data. The author highlights other legal challenges encountered during his research and practice such as the Intellectual Property Paradigm regarding Geospatial imagery and data commercial transactions. Moreover, Value Added Data and the Exhaustion of Rights Principle of the rights deserve also some close attention and must be added to the present study.


Jordi Sandalinas Baró
Attorney at Law, Maritime SDI, Drone and Satellite Law, Lecturer and Course Instructor, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, CEO Image Sea Solutions, Coordinator SpaceLaw.net, email: advocat@sandalinas.com.

    The highest administrative court in the Netherlands has delivered a razor-sharp ruling on the intra-community service provision set out in Articles 56 and 57 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union). This concerns ‘new’ EU-nationals who are still under transitional measures with regard to access to the labour markets of ‘old’ EU Member States. The judgment was preceded by a request from the Chairman to a State Councillor Advocate General to deliver his opinion on various aspects of punitive administrative law practice in the Netherlands. Both the opinion and the judgment are a welcome clarification and addition (or even correction) on the practice.


Bart J. Maes
Bart J. Maes is a partner at Maes Staudt Advocaten N.V. in Eindhoven, the Netherlands (www.maes-staudt.nl).

Gert-Jan Put
Gert-Jan Put is onderzoeker van het FWO-Vlaanderen en verbonden aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor de Overheid. Zijn onderzoek handelt over kandidatenselectie, parlementaire turnover en campagne-effecten.

Bart Maddens
Bart Maddens is germanist en politicoloog. Hij is als gewoon hoogleraar verbonden aan het KU Leuven Instituut voor de Overheid. Hij publiceerde over partij- en campagnefinanciering, verkiezingen, de staatshervorming, politieke partijen in multilevelsystemen en de monarchie.
Article

Policy Considerations for New Human Space Exploration Strategies

The Space Generation Perspective

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 7 2015
Authors Chantelle Dubois, Lazlo Bacsardi, Ali Nasseri e.a.
Author's information

Chantelle Dubois
Space Generation Advisory Council, Canada

Lazlo Bacsardi
Hungary

Ali Nasseri
Canada

Michael Deiml
Germany

Alana Bartolini
Canada

Kate Howells
Canada

Jessica Todd
Australia

Kumar Abhijeet
Australia
Article

Sustainable Space Exploration and Use

Space Mining in Present and Future Perspectives

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2015
Authors Rishiraj Baruah and Nandini Paliwal
Author's information

Rishiraj Baruah
International Institute of Air and Space Law, Leiden University

Nandini Paliwal
International Institute of Air and Space Law, Leiden University

Sanne Taekema
Sanne Taekema is Professor of Jurisprudence, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University of Rotterdam. Her current research is oriented to the rule of law in a global context and to methodological and conceptual issues pertaining to interdisciplinary rule of law.

Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the VU University Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Introduction: Reciprocity and the Normativity of Legal Orders

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2014
Keywords reciprocity, normativity
Authors Prof. Dr. Hans Lindahl PhD and Bart van Klink
AbstractAuthor's information

    This contribution introduces the special issue, which contains a selection of the lectures delivered by key-note speakers during the Summer School organized by the editors in August, 2013, at the behest of the Section of Ethics & Practical Philosophy of the Dutch Research School of Philosophy (OZSW).


Prof. Dr. Hans Lindahl PhD
Hans Lindahl is Professor of Legal Philosophy at Tilburg University.

Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the VU University Amsterdam.
Essay

Het compromis 2.0.

De meerwaarde van het uitruilprincipe voor de Nederlandse en Belgische politiek

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 2014
Authors Nicolas Bouteca and Bart-Jan Heine
Author's information

Nicolas Bouteca
Nicolas Bouteca is doctor in de politieke wetenschappen. Hij promoveerde in 2011 op een proefchrift over ideologische convergentie. Momenteel werkt hij als doctor-assistent aan de UGent waar hij lid is van de onderzoeksgroep GASPAR. Zijn interesses zijn: ideologie, politieke partijen, electorale competitie en het Belgisch federalisme.

Bart-Jan Heine
Bart-Jan Heine is als promovendus verbonden aan het Instituut Politieke Wetenschap (Universiteit Leiden). Zijn proefschrift gaat over de Nederlandse consensusdemocratie. Daarvoor bestudeert hij de politieke besluitvorming in de periode 1950-2000 rondom de centrale sociaaleconomische (socialezekerheidsstelsel, WAO) en religieus-ethische (abortus, euthanasie) kwesties.
Article

Transformative Mediation

A Self-Assessment

Journal International Journal of Conflict Engagement and Resolution, Issue 1 2014
Keywords relational approach to mediation, transformative mediation, ideology and mediation, Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation, USPS REDRESS Mediation Program
Authors Joseph Folger and Robert A. Baruch Bush
AbstractAuthor's information

    Transformative mediation is an approach to third party intervention that has been implemented in a range of dispute settings over the past twenty years. This article offers an explanation of what led us to develop the transformative model of mediation, and an assessment of the body of work related to both the theory and practice of transformative mediation. Specifically, we offer an assessment of: how well the relational premises of the model have been articulated, whether transformative practice remained aligned with its underlying premises, what the impact of practice has been, and what effect this approach to conflict intervention has had on the discourse of the conflict field in general.


Joseph Folger
Joseph Folger, Ph.D., is Professor of Adult and Organizational Development at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. He is a co-founder of the Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation (<www.transformativemediation.org>).

Robert A. Baruch Bush
Robert A. Baruch Bush, J.D., is Rains Distinguished Professor of Law at the Maurice A. Deane School of Law, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, New York, U.S.A. He is a co-founder of the Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation (<www.transformativemediation.org>).
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