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    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the assessment undertaken by the DG Competition of the European Commission on a series of merger and acquisition cases occurring in the space sector in the last 25 years. Not only do the decisions of the DG Competition record the evolution of the major actors in the space sector in Europe but they also demonstrate how the DG Competition of the European Commission has acknowledged the regulatory contribution of the European Space Agency to the creation and growth of the industrial landscape of the space sector in Europe. The paper is not meant to be a scholarly contribution to the analysis of EU competition law. It is, instead, a fact-finding exercise seen from the perspective of ESA’s industrial policy.


Marco Ferrazzani
European Space Agency (ESA), Legal Counsel and Head of Legal Services Department.

Ioanna Thoma
European Space Agency (ESA),Legal Officer.
Article

Space Law and International Organizations

10th Nandasiri Jasentuliyana Keynote Lecture on Space Law

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2018
Authors Marco Ferrazzani
Author's information

Marco Ferrazzani
Legal Counsel of the European Space Agency. Director of the International Institute of Space Law.
Article

The European Space Agency as a European Institution and a Space Law Maker

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1 2016
Keywords European institution, access to space, innovation and development, space law, international cooperation
Authors Marco Ferrazzani
AbstractAuthor's information

    The European Space Agency was set-up over 40 years ago and has delivered on expectations from the scientific community’s quest for more knowledge, from the politicians wishing for more Europe and from the business community developing industrial and operational capabilities. All has been made possible thanks to hard-working scientists and space engineers who created and progressively refined a magic formula of balanced interests and respectful co-operation. The diplomats and lawyers well understood the challenges and so defined long-term policy objectives and a stable legal framework necessary to meet them, therefore providing institutional skills and appropriate financing tools which proved successful, and still today make this particular aspect of Europe. The ESA Convention, along with the activities and programmes based in its framework continue to serve as a living example of how to make Europe with a cooperative formula of a common Agency and law maker, giving access to space for all European citizens.


Marco Ferrazzani
ESA Legal Counsel, European Space Agency, 10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris. Email: marco.ferrazzani@esa.int.

Alexander Soucek
European Space Agency, Paris, France

Tim. Flohrer
European Space Agency, Darmstadt, Germany

Stijn Lemmens
European Space Agency, Darmstadt, Germany

Marco Ferrazzani
European Space Agency, Paris, France

Pierre Reynaud
European Space Agency, Paris, France

Stefan Frey
Swiss Space Office, on secondment to the European Space Agency

Marco Ferrazzani
European Space Agency (ESA).

André Farand
European Space Agency (ESA).

Marco Ferrazzani
European Space Agency, ESA Legal Counsel and Head of Legal Department, marco.ferrazzani@esa.int

M. Ferrazzani
Article

The Policies in Remote Sensing and the Practices of the European Space Agency

2005 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 44th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Recent Developments in Remote Sensing and the Desirability of Reviewing the 1986 United Nations Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 7 2005
Authors M. Ferrazzani

M. Ferrazzani
Article

The European Initiatives and Programmes for Satellite Navigation

Legal Aspects of Navigation Satellites, GPS, Space Applications and Space Uses

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1998
Authors M. Ferrazzani

M. Ferrazzani
Article

Recent European Regulatory Issues of Communication Satellite Systems

Legal Issues Concerning Low Earth Orbit Communications Satellite

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1993
Authors M. Ferrazzani

M. Ferrazzani
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