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    International cooperation is the key to the strongest peace in the world, to really constructive relations and the political, economic, cultural and humanistic development among all countries, all peoples and all mankind. There is an “extraordinary danger of the current moment,” the Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists said on January 25, 2018, when it decided to move the hand of the iconic Doomsday Clock to 2 minutes to midnight. The last time the symbolic Clock was this closing to midnight was in 1953, at the height of the First Cold War. (2) Now, 65 years later, we are in a Second Cold War, which propels a new and millionaire arms race into space, preparing a space war of inestimable consequences. The world community is “seriously concerned” about this concrete possibility, that can result in a limitless global collapse.
    The UN General Assembly Resolution 72-77, of December 7, 2017, makes an appeal “to all States Members, in particular those with major space capabilities, to contribute actively to preventing an arms race in outer space with a view to promoting and strengthening international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes”. This resolution also “requests the Committee [The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space – UNCOPUOS] to continue to consider, as a matter of priority, ways and means of maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes.” In its point of view, “the Committee should continue to consider the broader perspective of space security and associated matters that would be instrumental in ensuring the safe and responsible conduct of space activities, including ways to promote international, regional and inter regional cooperation to that end.” (3) As if that were not enough, we are facing an unprecedented climate crisis today. The mainstream media seek to conceal or minimize the fact. But this is part of the problem of the need to maximize international cooperation. Without it, the crisis will continue to spread and threaten the lives of millions of people around the world. In this way, can international space cooperation be carried out effectively “on an equitable and mutually acceptable basis,” as proposed the Declaration on International Cooperation (General Assembly Resolution 51/122, of December 13, 1996)? (4)
    Is it possible to ensure today “an equitable situation” on “a mutually acceptable basis” between developed and developing nations, whose distance increases more and more, mainly in military affairs? The present paper aims to discuss this and other similar issues.


José Monserrat Filho
Brazilian Association of Air and Space Law (SBDA); Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science (SBPC); International Institute of Space Law (IISL).

Alvaro Fabricio dos Santos
Alvaro Fabricio dos Santos, Advocacy General of the Union (AGU), Brazilian Association for Aeronautics and Space Law (SBDA), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil, alvaro.santos@agu.gov.br.

José Monserrat Filho
José Monserrat Filho, Brazilian Association for Aeronautics and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, jose.monserrat.filho@gmail.com.

José Monserrat Filho
Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), Brazilian Association of Air and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Article

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Perspectives from Space Law

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2015
Authors Álvaro Fabricio dos Santos and José Monserrat Filho
Author's information

Álvaro Fabricio dos Santos
Advocacy General of the Union (AGU), Brazilian Association for Aeronautics and Space Law (SBDA), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

José Monserrat Filho
Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), Brazilian Association for Aeronautics and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

José Monserrat-Filho
Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), Brazilian Association of Air and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC)

José Monserrat Filho
Brazilian Association of Air and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), jose.monserrat.filho@gmail.com.

José Monserrat-Filho
Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), Brazilian Association of Air and Space Law (SBDA) Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), jose.monserrat.filho@ gmail.com.

José Monserrat Filho
Brazilian Association of Air and Space Law (SBDA), Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC), jose.monserrat.filho@gmail.com
Article

Is there a Future for Space Law Beyond "Soft Law"?

The Current Status of the Rule of Law with Regard to Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2010
Authors J. Monserrat Filho and A.F. dos Santos

J. Monserrat Filho

A.F. dos Santos
Article

Code of Conduct for Space Activities: Evolution or Regression?

Peace in Space: Transparency and Confidence Building Measures

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2009
Authors J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho
Article

Toward a National Brazilian Center on Space Policy and Law Studies

The Impact of Outer Space Law on Regional Policies

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2007
Authors A.F. dos Santos and J. Monserrat-Filho

A.F. dos Santos

J. Monserrat-Filho
Article

Space Law and the Brave Blue World

The 40th Anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty and Other Legal Matters

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2007
Authors J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho
Article

The Importance of International Cooperation in Building National Space Data Infrastructure in All Countries

Cooperation in Space Activities, With Special Focus on Remote Sensing

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2006
Authors J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho
Article

Corporations and Space Law

Other Legal Matters I, Including Legal Aspects of Sub-Orbital Flights

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2005
Authors J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho
Article

A Remote Sensing Convention for the Advancement of Space Law

Legal Aspects of Applications and Private Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2003
Authors J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho
Article

Evolving Space Law and World Political Hegemonies

Other Legal Matters, Including Legal Aspects of Launch Services

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2002
Authors J. Monserrat Filho and P.A. Salin

J. Monserrat Filho

P.A. Salin
Article

Brazil-Ukraine Partnership for the Use of the Alcantara Launch Center

Other Legal Matters, Including Legal Aspects of Launch Services

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2002
Authors V. Leister and J. Monserrat Filho

V. Leister

J. Monserrat Filho
Article

Space Traffic Management: Comparative Institutional Aspects

2002 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 41st Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Prospects for Space Traffic Management"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2002
Authors J. Monserrat Filho

J. Monserrat Filho
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