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    Most if not all space activities require the use of the radio frequency spectrum (RFS); the RFS is essential for satellite and other wireless communications and scientific probes. Countries with advanced industries in the space sector obviously have more developed legislation than States that only aspire to participate in space activities. Even these, however, regulate space activities by which they are directly affected, primarily through their adherence to the International Telecommunication Union Radio Regulations (ITU-RR) and policies embedded in the space treaties. Thus, it can be said that most countries have some basic national legislation related to space activities.
    Some emerging economies have changed the focus of their activities, from wanting to acquire a satellite for communications, to obtaining a remote-sensing /earth observation satellite. Regardless of the change in focus, they face similar issues: budgetary and personnel constraints, as well as policies of industrialized countries regarding transfer of technology. Despite these challenges, less developed countries have contributed to the expansion of space activities and their regulation, at the national and international level. They participate in ITU Study Groups, and in the UN COPUOS’ sessions, bringing a different perspective to the deliberations of these entities.
    This paper will focus on Emerging Market Economies (EMEs), 5G networks and satellite mega- constellations; it will provide an overview of some of their contributions to space law and space activities, while keeping in mind limitations they continue facing.


Sylvia Ospina
S. Ospina & Associates - Consultants POB 141814, Coral Gables, FLA 33114.

Anna Veneziano
Prof. Anna Veneziano, Deputy Secretary-General, International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (Unidroit).

Hamza Hameed
Mr. Hamza Hameed, Legal Consultant, International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (Unidroit).
Article

Satellites and Their Humanitarian Applications

Time to Highlight Their Human Aspects?

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2017
Authors Sylvia Ospina and Valentina Nardone
Author's information

Sylvia Ospina
JD, LL.M., S. Ospina & Associates – Consultants, POB 141814, Coral Gables, FL 33114, USA, Email: sospina@bellsouth.net; sospina2@gmail.com.

Valentina Nardone
Dr. Valentina Nardone; Sapienza University of Rome.

Carlos Gabriel Argüelles Arredondo
Instituto de Estudios Internacionales, Universidad del Mar, Mexico, Facultad de Economía y Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico, Email: carlosarguellesarr@hotmail.com.

Sylvia Ospina
S. Ospina & Associates – Consultants, POB 141814, Coral Gables, FL 33114, Email: sospina@bellsouth.net; sospina2@gmail.com.

Yuri Takaya-Umehara
Lecturer, Kobe University, Japan

Sylvia Ospina
S. Ospina & Associates-Consultants, Florida.

Martha Mejía-Kaiser
Co-Chair Manfred Lachs Space Law Moot Court Committee IISL

Dr. Martha Mejía-Kaiser
Co-Chair, Manfred Lachs Space Law Moot Court Committee, IISL

Prof. dr. Mark. J Sundahl

Sylvia Ospina JD. LL.M
Coral Gables, Florida
Article

Introduction, Problem and Finalists Briefs

19th Manfred Lachs Space Law Moot Court Competition, 2010: Case Concerning Suborbital Tourism, Definition of Outer Space and Liability (Aspirantia v. Republica)

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 12 2010

S. Ospina
Article

Let There Be Peace in Space, and on Earth

Peace in Space: Transparency and Confidence Building Measures

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2009
Authors S. Ospina

S. Ospina

J. Hong

J. Bonin

M. Mejia-Kaiser

M. Sundahl

C. Doldirina

C. Jorgenson
Article

Report of the 51st Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space in Glasgow, Scotland, September 2008

Glasgow Session Reports

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 6 2008
Authors C. Doldirina, F. Tronchetti, Y. Takaya-Umehara e.a.

C. Doldirina

F. Tronchetti

Y. Takaya-Umehara

S. Ospina

C. Constant-Jorgenson
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