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Cedric Ryngaert
Assistant Professor of International Law, Leuven University and Utrecht University.

Cedric Ryngaert
Cedric Ryngaert is a lecturer in international law at the Universities of Utrecht and Leuven.

Cedric Ryngaert
Lecturer in international law, Universities of Utrecht and Leuven.
Article

Démocratie représentative et démocratie directe

le cas italien

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1984
Authors Johan Ryngaert
Abstract

    Although the popular referendum is part of Italy's 1948 constitution, the political parties in power delayed for more than 20 years putting it info practice. It was finally institutionalized in 1970 and has met on various occasions with caution or hostility from the political parties. Succeeding in mobilizing public opinion, shaking the political parties and speeding up the legislative process, the referendum disappointed in several respects. Especially the permanent conflict with parliament through the action of the radical party led to negativism on its behalf.


Johan Ryngaert
Article

La réforme régionale italienne

Un bilan à l'occasion des élections régionales des 8 et 9 juin 1980

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 1980
Authors Catherine Guillermet and Johan Ryngaert
Abstract

    Ten years after they were set up, the Italian regions have fallen into general discredit. They are discredited by the central government who regards them as a source of support for the opposing Communist Party and has sought to undermine this reform by depriving the regions of all true autonomy. The regions are discredited by the public opinion by not fulfilling the expectations placed in them. Such an assessment does not stand up to a close examination of regional practices: some geographical differences rapidly become obvious, but especially evident are the political differences. In fact, the regions are the product of an apparent agreement between the political parties and have always suffered from political bargaining which explains the national scale of the issues raised at the last elections. Strengthened by the favorable results obtained in certain regions, the Communist Party was quick to turn this statement of the electoral opinion into a « referendum » about the newly formed Cossiga government.


Catherine Guillermet

Johan Ryngaert
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