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Access_open The Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000: Proposals for Legislative Reform to Promote Equality through Schools and the Education System

Journal Erasmus Law Review, Issue 3 2020
Keywords Transformative pedagogy, equality legislation, promotion of equality, law reform, using law to change hearts and minds
Authors Anton Kok, Lwando Xaso, Annalize Steenekamp e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this article, we focus on how the education system can be used to promote equality in the context of changing people’s hearts and minds – values, morals and mindsets. The duties contained in the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000 (‘Equality Act’) bind private and public schools, educators, learners, governing bodies and the state. The Equality Act calls on the state and all persons to promote substantive equality, but the relevant sections in the Equality Act have not been given effect yet, and are therefore currently not enforceable. We set out how the duty to promote equality should be concretised in the Equality Act to inter alia use the education system to promote equality in schools; in other words, how should an enforceable duty to promote equality in schools be fashioned in terms of the Equality Act. Should the relevant sections relating to the promotion of equality come into effect in their current form, enforcement of the promotion of equality will take the form of obliging schools to draft action plans and submit these to the South African Human Rights Commission. We deem this approach inadequate and therefore propose certain amendments to the Equality Act to allow for a more sensible monitoring of schools’ duty to promote equality. We explain how the duty to promote equality should then play out practically in the classroom to facilitate a change in learners’ hearts and minds.

Anton Kok
Anton Kok is Professor of Jurisprudence at the Faculty of Law of the University of Pretoria.

Lwando Xaso
Lwando Xaso is an independent lawyer, writer and historian.

Annalize Steenekamp
Annalize Steenekamp, LLM, is a Multidisciplinary Human Rights graduate from the University of Pretoria.

Michelle Oelofse
Michelle Oelofse is an Academic associate and LLM candidate at the University of Pretoria.

Consensus Democracy and Bureaucracy in the Low Countries

Journal Politics of the Low Countries, Issue 1 2019
Keywords consensus democracy, bureaucracy, governance system, Lijphart, policymaking
Authors Frits van der Meer, Caspar van den Berg, Charlotte van Dijck e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    Taking Lijphart’s work on consensus democracies as our point of departure, we signal a major shortcoming in Lijphart’s focus being almost exclusively on the political hardware of the state structure, leaving little attention for the administrative and bureaucratic characteristics of governance systems. We propose to expand the Lijphart’s model which overviews structural aspects of the executive and the state with seven additional features of the bureaucratic system. We argue that these features are critical for understanding the processes of policymaking and service delivery. Next, in order to better understand the functioning of the Netherlands and Belgium as consensus democracies, we provide a short analysis of the historical context and current characteristics of the political-administrative systems in both countries.

Frits van der Meer
Frits van der Meer, Professor Institute Public Administration, Leiden University.

Caspar van den Berg
Caspar van den Berg, Campus Fryslân, University of Groningen.

Charlotte van Dijck
Charlotte van Dijck, PhD Fellow Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), KU Leuven Public Governance Institute.

Gerrit Dijkstra
Gerrit Dijkstra, Senior Lecturer, Leiden University.

Trui Steen
Trui Steen, Professor, KU Leuven Public Governance Institute.

Doctoraatsopleidingen in Nederland en Vlaanderen

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 2015
Authors Bas Denters, Maurits Sanders, Trui Steen e.a.
Author's information

Bas Denters
Bas Denters is gewoon hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan het Departement Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Twente, wetenschappelijk directeur van het Netherlands Institute of Government (NIG).

Maurits Sanders
Maurits Sanders is associate lector governance aan Saxion en zakelijk directeur van het Netherlands Institute of Government (NIG).

Trui Steen
Trui Steen is hoofdocent ‘bestuurlijke organisatie van de overheid’ aan het Instituut voor de Overheid van de KU Leuven en hoofddocent ‘vergelijkende bestuurskunde’ aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Luzia Helfer
Luzia Helfer is doctoraatsstudente aan de Universiteit Leiden en de Universiteit Antwerpen.

Mark van Twist
Mark van Twist (1966) is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde, in het bijzonder bestuurs- en beleidsadvisering in publiek-private context, aan de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam. Daarnaast is hij decaan en bestuurder van de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur en buitengewoon lid van het College van de Algemene Rekenkamer. Mark van Twist doet onderzoek naar veranderingen op het grensvlak van overheid en bedrijfsleven. Zijn onderzoek richt zich op publieke en politieke advisering, strategisch management bij de overheid, ketenregie, vraagsturing, publiek ondernemerschap, publiekprivate samenwerking (PPS), verzelfstandiging & marktwerking en alliantievorming, zowel op het gebied van telecommunicatie, transport en energie, maar evenzeer op het terrein van onderwijs, zorg en welzijn.

Martijn van der Steen
Martijn van der Steen (1977) is codecaan en adjunct-directeur van de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur in Den Haag. Hij is directeur van de denktank van de NSOB, waarin wetenschappelijk onderzoek en reflectie op praktijken uit het openbaar bestuur plaatsvindt. Hij houdt zich in zijn onderzoek bezig met de sturing van complexe netwerken, beweeglijke grenzen tussen publiek en privaat, strategievorming bij overheidsorganisaties, toekomstgerichte beleidsontwikkeling en de professionalisering van overheidsfunctionarissen.

Philip Marcel Karré
Philip Marcel Karré (1978) is als senior onderzoeker en leermanager verbonden aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur. Hij maakt daar deel uit van de denktank van de NSOB, als een van de kernonderzoekers in het onderzoeksprogramma Governance op de grens tussen overheid, markt en middenveld. Daarnaast werkt hij onder begeleiding van prof. dr. Roeland J. in ’t Veld en prof. dr. Jaap J. Boonstra aan een promotieonderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties in de Nederlandse afvalsector.

    Personnel management in localgovernment in Flanders bas undergone some major reforms during recent years. We examine the purposes and the extent of these reforms. Also, the new personnel management in Flemish local government is evaluated in terms of flexibility. The Flemish civil service can be considered as an Internal Labour Market. The rigidity which characterises the Internal Labour Market in local government in Flanders is shown by the fact that local government lacks discretion in elaborating the personnel statute, which still constitutes the basis of personnel management. However, the thesis that the public sector employment policy is too rigid has to be nuanced. The civil service is familiar with irregular forms ofemployment. Infact, in Flemish local government only half of all personnel are employed according to a statute. Despite some constraints on the development of more flexible personnel policies, it is still possible to find opportunities which provide hope for the development of new and modern personnel management strategies in local government.

Trui Steen

De politieke strijd rond de invoering van de ecotaks

Een getuigenis

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1993
Authors Magda Aelvoet and Chris Steenwegen

    Agalev and Ecolo (the green parties in Flanders and Wallonia) consented to supporting the institutional reform of Belgium. Product-policy will be assigned to the federal government. Ecotaxes, fiscal instruments that fit in a product policy, are introduced. Three criteria are defined: 1) the primary goal is to bring about a change of behaviour, 2) the revenues are allocated towards environmental policy and 3) alternative products should be available. Whoever wants to know society, must try to change it. The enormous resistance of industry cannot only be explained by economic considerations. Much more, it is a matter of pure power: who has something to say about what. But resistance and desinformaton also came from consumers' organisations, thewritten press in its comments and even from some 'environmental scientists'. Authors wonder what farces will be unleashed when the discussion on 'reducing consumption ' starts.

Magda Aelvoet

Chris Steenwegen
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