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    The number of preference votes for the candidates running in the October 2006 local elections in the thirteen main cities of Flanders is largely determined by the position on the list and the previous political mandate. A multivariate analysis shows that an executive function on the local level yields a comparable electoral bonus as a national mandate. The campaign expenditures also have a significant effect. There is a spending limit, but the candidates on average spend only 22% of what they are allowed to. Christian-democratic candidates generally spend the most, with the liberals ranked second. The gender, age and professional status of the candidates have at most a very marginal effect on their electoral score, controlling for the other relevant variables. Candidates with a foreign name obtain a somewhat better result on average, but this is particularly the case with candidates running for the socialist party.

Bart Maddens
Bart Maddens is hoofddocent aan het Centrum voor Politicologie van de K.U.Leuven. Hij doceert onder meer vergelijkende politiek en kiesstelsels. Zijn onderzoek betreft hoofdzakelijk verkiezingen en partijfinanciering.

Karolien Weekers
Karolien Weekers is wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Centrum voor Politicologie van de K.U.Leuven. Ze werkt aan een doctoraatsonderzoek over partij- en campagnefinanciering en maakt sinds 2006 deel uit van het team dat de KANDI-gegevens inzamelt en analyseert.

Stefaan Fiers
Stefaan Fiers is docent aan het Centrum voor Politicologie van de K.U.Leuven en doceert politieke wetenschappen aan de Campus Kortrijk van de K.U.Leuven. Hij nam mee het initiatief tot de zogenaamde KANDI-onderzoeken, die voor elke verkiezing sinds 2003 de belangrijkste sociografische en electorale kenmerken van alle verkiezingskandidaten op Vlaamse lijsten verzamelt.

Ine Vanlangenakker
Ine Vanlangenakker is assistente aan de Faculteit Sociale wetenschappen van de K.U.Leuven en bereidt een doctoraat voor over het carrièreverloop van leden van regionale parlementen in comparatief perspectief. In 2006 maakte ze deel uit van het team dat de KANDI2006-gegevens inzamelde en analyseerde.

    According to our analysis of the campaign expenses declared by the Flemish candidates for the 2003 federal and the 2004 regional elections candidates of the three traditional parties spend, on average, about 70 à 80% of what they are allowed to. The impact of the spending limit is much smaller for the other parties, the candidates of which spend only about 50% of what they are allowed to. Incumbents and candidates who are also mayor in a municipality tend to spend more. The background characteristics of the candidates have almost no effect on the expenditures. There is only a small effect of gender, in the sense that women candidates spend less. On average, one third of the individual campaign expenditures is financed by the individual candidates, and two thirds by the party. However, in the liberal party the contribution of the party is substantially lower (35 à 40% on average), while it is higher (80% on average) in the socialist party as well as for female candidates

Bart Maddens
Hoofddocent aan het Centrum voor Politicologie, K.U.Leuven.

Karolien Weekers
Wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Centrum voor Politicologie, K.U.Leuven.

Jo Noppe
Doctor in de sociale wetenschappen, K.U.Leuven.

    On 13 June 2003, elections for both the regional parliaments and the European Parliament were held in Belgium. The percentage of voters casting a preferential vote increased when compared with the previous regional and European elections of 1999, reaching scores clearly higher than 60%. The new electoral laws are one explanation for this increase, together with societal evolutions, such as individualism, anti-party feelings, personalization of polities and the appearance of cartels. In comparison with the federal elections of 2003 however, there was a decrease in prererential voting, due to lower campaign expenditures and to the success of parties that traditionally do not attract many preferential votes. Voters can also cast a vote for several candidates figuring on the same party list, which is contrary to the past done quite frequently now. Finally, more candidates than ever succeeded in becoming elected out oî the order of the party list.

Bram Wauters

Karolien Weekers

Jean-Benoît Pilet

In de ban van de koning?

Een verkennend survey-onderzoek naar de structuur van de attitudes van Vlaamse scholieren tegenover de monarchie

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2002
Authors Bart Maddens, Jan Tommissen, Dieter Vanhee e.a.

    A survey amongst 602 Flemish secondary school pupils, aged 17-18, shows that a distinction can be made between two different, albeit closely related, dimensions of royalism: the emotional attachment to the king as a person and to the royal family on the one hand, and the political support for the monarchy on the other. Respondents are predominantly indifferent or negative about the monarchy, particularly on the emotional dimension. A multivariate analysis shows that male and non-churchgoing pupils are more negative on both dimensions. Pupils from migrant families are more positive on the emotional dimension. The scores on both dimensions are higher amongst pupils who identify with Belgium rather than with Flanders, who have strong patriotic feelings and who tend towards an authoritarian attitude. The scores are lower amongst pupils with apreference for a regionalist party. The hypothesis that intense royalist feelings coincide with a general attitude of trust in the political authorities was only confirmed with regard to the emotional dimension, while the political support for the monarchy appears to be detached from the trust in the political authorities.

Bart Maddens

Jan Tommissen

Dieter Vanhee

Wouter Van Mierloo

Karolien Weekers
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