Search result: 21 articles

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    The Court of Appeal has overruled the recent Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) decision in Efobi – v – Royal Mail [2017] IRLR 956 (reported in EELC 2017/41), restoring the previous position that a claimant in a discrimination case has the initial burden of proof – which ‘shifts’ to the respondent to provide an explanation of why its conduct was non-discriminatory if a prima facie case is proven.
    The Court of Appeal disagreed with Mrs Justice Elisabeth Laing’s ruling in Efobi, that section136 of the Equality Act 2010 had made a substantial change to the law when it was introduced, on the basis that it could not be fair that a respondent should have to discharge the burden of proof without the claimant first showing that there is a case to be answered. Lord Singh ruled that it could not have been Parliament’s intention to remove this initial burden of proof when it enacted the Equality Act.


Kayleigh Williams
Kayleigh Williams is a paralegal at Lewis Silkin LLP.

Maureen Williams
University of Buenos Aires / Conicet, Chair, ILA Space Law Committee

Prof.Dr. Maureen Williams
(CONICET / UBA) Chair, Space Law Committee, International Law Association.

Professor Dr Maureen Williams
University of Buenos Aires / CONICET (Argentina), Chair ILA Space Law Committee (HQ, London), maureenw777@yahoo.co.uk
Article

A Pragmatic Approach to the "Harmful Contamination" Concept in Art. IX of the Outer Space Treaty

The 5th Eilene M. Galloway Symposium on Critical Issues in Space Law in Washington D.C., United States, December 2010: "Art. IX of the Outer Space Treaty and Peaceful Purposes: Issues and Implementation"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 11 2010
Authors M. Williamson

M. Williamson
Article

The Moon Agreement in the Current Scenarios

30 Years of the Moon Agreement: Perspectives

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2010
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

The Registration Convention Thirty Years On

Cooperation in Space Activities, With Special Focus on Remote Sensing

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2006
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

The UN Principles on Remote Sensing Today

Legal Issues Related to New Developments in Space Applications: Navigation, Remote Sensing and GIS

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2005
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

On the Need to Regulate Space Traffic Management

Space Traffic Management and Navigation

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2003
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

Perceptions on the Definition of a "Launching State" and Space Debris Risks

Other Legal Matters, Including Legal Aspects of Launch Services

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2002
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

Protection of the Space Environment: The First Small Steps

IAA-IAC/IISL/COSPAR Joint Session: Planetary Protection Issues in Space Exploration, Legal Aspects

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2002
Authors M. Williamson

M. Williamson

M. Williams
Article

Ethics, Space Activities and the Law

Law and the Ethics of Space in the New Millennium

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2000
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

Planetary Spacecraft Debris: The Case for Protecting the Space Environment

18th IAA-IISL Scientific-Legal Roundtable in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1999: "Protection of the Space Environment"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1999
Authors M. Williamson

M. Williamson
Article

The Development of Article IX of the 1967 Space Treaty

Applications & Implementation of the Outer Space Treaty

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1997
Authors M. Williams

M. Williams
Article

Protection of the Space Environment Under the Outer Space Treaty

The Future Applications of the Outer Space Treaty

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 1997
Authors M. Williamson

M. Williamson
Article

Dispute Settlement and Space Activities: a New Framework Required?

Cases and Methods of Dispute Settlement in Space Law

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 1996
Authors S.-M. Williams

S.-M. Williams
Article

Space Debris and International Law

Legal Issues Arising from Recent Technical Studies Relating to Space Debris

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 1995
Authors S.M. Williams

S.M. Williams
Article

New Challenges in International Orbital Debris Policy

Other Legal Matters

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 1994
Authors R.A. Williamson and R. Obermann

R.A. Williamson

R. Obermann
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