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    In 2021, Dutch courts held that both Deliveroo riders and Uber drivers are employees. Interestingly, the District Court of Amsterdam considered there to be a ‘modern relationship of authority’ between Uber drivers and Uber.

Diede Elshof
Diede Elshof recently graduated from Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.
Pending Cases

Case C-57/22, Work and Residence Permint

European Commission – v – Czech Republic, action brought on 4 February 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Work and Residence Permit
Pending Cases

Cases C-206/22, Paid Leave

TF – v – Sparkasse Südpfalz, reference lodged by the Arbeitsgericht Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany) on 17 March 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Paid Leave

    An employer has been held liable for not preventing and tackling an employee’s sexual harassment of another employee contrary to the employer’s obligations under the Danish Equal Treatment Act. Furthermore, the employer had breached the Equal Treatment Act by dismissing the employee when she informed the employer of the sexual harassment.

Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.

    Once again, the German jurisdiction has had to deal with the question of whether the expiration of leave entitlements is possible if the employee has no prior information about such leave from the employer, even if the employee was not able to continue working and therefore not able to take leave until the end of the employment relationship. A decision that the German Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) still does not want to take without a landmark decision of the ECJ.

Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner is a partner at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Nina Stephan
Nina Stephan is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

Zef Even
Pending Cases

Case C-113/22, Gender Discrimination, Social Insurance

DX, Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS) – v – Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social, reference lodged by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Galicia (Spain) on 17 February 2022

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2022
Keywords Gender Discrimination, Social Insurance

    The Ploiești Court of Appeal has ruled that although the applicable national legislation in case of transfers of undertakings requires a transfer of ownership, the ECJ case law prevails and that, in the absence of a contractual agreement, a transfer of undertaking can be established even if the transferee concludes new employment contracts with the employees.

Andreea Suciu
Andreea is Managing Partner of Suciu - Employment and Data Protection Lawyers

Teodora Manaila
Teodora is an attorney-at-law at Suciu - Employment and Data Protection Lawyers .

Access_open Magnifying the Power of the Mediators’ Green Pledge

Journal Corporate Mediation Journal, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Mediators’ Green Pledge, World Mediators’ Alliance on Climate Change
Authors Anna Doyle
AbstractAuthor's information

    Taking the Green Pledge presents a timely opportunity for mediators, and the corporations that use their services, to come together and maximise their effectiveness. Mobilising collective effort among the global mediation community can not only help to keep mediation uppermost in people’s minds as an option in the resolution of conflict but may also serve to make up, in some small way, the shortfall that arises through prolonged use of oil, gas and coal, in the face of global uncertainty.

Anna Doyle
Anna (Walsh) Doyle is an International Mediator & CMJ Editorial Board member. She is also an external Mediator on the Global Mediation Panel at the Office of the Ombudsman for UN Funds and Programmes.

Access_open Mapping the Parameters of Online Dispute Resolution

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords ODR, ethics, online dispute resolution, alternative dispute resolution, technology, artificial intelligence
Authors Leah Wing
AbstractAuthor's information

    The definition of online dispute resolution (ODR) has become increasingly contested, particularly fueled by the recent explosion in the use of technology during the pandemic by courts and alternative dispute resolution practitioners. The recent expansion of stakeholders has contributed productively to the on-going discussion of the parameters of ODR that have implications for ethical practice. Does the use of video conferencing constitute ODR? What new procedural and substantive justice concerns arise with the use of technology in dispute handling and how should they be addressed? Since technology not only alters the role of third parties and disputants but also serves as a fourth party, what are the ethical implications for example, of employing artificial intelligence? How can explorations of the boundaries of ODR foster a re-imaging of 21st Century justice systems?
    This article explores the importance of the parameters of ODR for the ethical practice of dispute resolution and introduces a paper, Framing the Parameters of Online Dispute Resolution (National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution, 2022) that offers a descriptive ODR Framework; one that encompasses the broad range of views on the boundaries of ODR along an axis of increasing reliance on technology through various functions and stages of dispute handling. The article discusses the implications of this ODR Framework for enhancing ethical guidance and regulation for whatever definition of ODR is utilized.

Leah Wing
Leah Wing is Director, National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution; Co-Founder and President-elect, Board of Directors, International Council for Online Dispute Resolution; and Senior Lecturer II, Legal Studies Program, Department of Political Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (USA).

The Pandemic, Climate Change and Mediation Converge in the Mediators’ Green Pledge

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords access to justice, online dispute resolution, impact of pandemic on mediation practice, commitments to “green” practice
Authors Ian Macduff
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article briefly examines the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on mediation practice and the potential benefits of maintaining a commitment to environmentally sound ways of practice as we emerge from the pandemic. It introduces the readers to a recent initiative, The Green Pledge, which is a voluntary commitment to reducing the carbon impact of practice.

Ian Macduff
Ian Macduff was, until early 2022, Director of the NZ Centre for ICT Law at the University of Auckland Law School, and before that was Associate Professor of Law and Director of the Centre for Dispute Resolution at Singapore Management University. He also taught at Victoria University of Wellington’s Law School for a number of years. He has been a practicing mediator for forty years and closely involved in the development of digital access to justice for the past twenty years.

Lessons from India’s ODR Movement

Insights from Co-leading a Movement While Surviving a Pandemic between 2018 and 2021

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Online Dispute Resolution, startups, entrepreneurs, ICICI Bank, E-ADR challenge, NITI Aayog, Supreme Court of India, ODR Handbook 2021, ODR national policy report
Authors Chittu Nagarajan and Sachin Malhan
AbstractAuthor's information

    India’s vast case pendency and inefficiency of formal mechanisms greatly hinder the resolution of disputes. Aimed at moving India beyond these traditional limitations, the online dispute resolution (ODR) movement in India developed and gained tremendous momentum with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Stakeholders otherwise resistant to change, both in government and in industry, were compelled to embrace technology and resort to an online mode of resolving disputes. This article traces the steady and promising growth of ODR in India and examines the contributions of innovators, entrepreneurs and enterprises who recognized the need for an alternative model of dispute resolution and participated in championing the expansion of ODR in the country. The article identifies insights from the Indian experience that could be portable to other missions for law and justice innovation in the world.

Chittu Nagarajan
Chittu Nagarajan is widely recognized as a global pioneer in ODR, Fellow of the National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution, Founding Board Member of the International Council for Online Dispute Resolution. Chittu is the founder of CREK ODR and co-founded, one of the first global ODR platforms of repute, ODRworld and ODRindia, the first online dispute resolution service provider in India in 2004. She also served as Head of the eBay and PayPal Community Court initiative. She can be reached at

Sachin Malhan
Sachin Malhan is the co-founder of Agami, established in 2018 with the objective of accelerating innovation in law and justice. It has pursued its mandate with a focus on discovering new ideas, curating and connecting critical actors across silos, and telling the story of a different future for law and justice. Agami began its ODR initiative in late 2018 and continues to advance ODR across different business ecosystems and strata of society. Sachin can be reached at

Europe’s Coordinated Approach to ODR

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Online Dispute Resolution (ODR), AI, lawtech, justice systems, human rights, Council of Europe, access to justice, European Cyberjustice Network, European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice
Authors Graham Ross
AbstractAuthor's information

    While court administrations/justice departments were not among the early adopters of online dispute resolution (ODR) they can clearly, as gatekeepers to the majority of civil disputes, have an enormous influence on ODR and, in particular, the speed at which ODR is adopted as a widely accepted practice in dispute resolution.
    Systems being rolled out by or for courts have been piecemeal as individual administrations pursue research into their own future. Early systems tend to be in either case management and/or e-filing but little in the way of e-negotiation or aids to resolution. What is shared is the existing challenges to the courts from rising costs, process delay and growth in the numbers of citizens unable, owing to cost, to pursue or defend litigation.
    In Europe what is bringing court administrations together in their development of ODR has been the issue of human rights and access to justice, which explains why an overall influence in the sharing of knowledge and experience in ODR has been the Council of Europe. This was a body set up in the immediate aftermath of World War II with a view to encouraging European states to work together in advancing and protecting human rights. Its greatest creation has been the European Convention on Human Rights and, of particular relevance, Article 6, which secures the right to a “public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law”.
    This article tracks various developments from bodies within the structure of the Council of Europe with regard to the application of ODR to the judicial system. These developments extend from research and debate on whether the overall impact on human rights and, in particular, access to justice, of ODR could be seen as a threat, and thus something to be protected against, or in a more positive light and, therefore, to be encouraged. This article tracks the formation of various bodies within the Council of Europe, such as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice , The Working Group on Cyberjustice and Artificial Intelligence and, most recently, the European Cyberjustice Network. This article also notes outcomes such as the Report on the impact of ODR on Human Rights produced by the Committee of Legal Affairs and Human Rights of the Council of Europe and the European Ethical Guidelines on the use of AI in judicial systems produced by The Working Group on Cyberjustice and Artificial Intelligence of the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice.

Graham Ross
Graham Ross is a UK lawyer and mediator with over 20 years of experience in IT and the law. Graham is the author of lthe original QUILL egal application software (accounts and time recording) and the founder of LAWTEL, the popular webbased legal information update service. Graham co-founded the first ODR service in the UK, WeCanSettle, designing the blind bidding software at the heart of the system. Graham subsequently founded, for whom he designed their online mediation platform. Graham speaks regularly at international conferences on the application of technology to ADR. Graham was host of the 5th International Conference on Online Dispute Resolution held in Liverpool, UK, in 2007 and has organised two other ODR conferences. Graham was a member of the EMCOD project which created a tool for the European Union for the measurement of justice through ODR. Graham was a member of the UK Civil Justice Council’s Advisory Group on Online Dispute Resolution, whose recommendations led to the creation of an online court for small claims. Graham is a Board Member of ICODR. Graham is also a leading trainer in ODR having created the accredited distance training course at

ODR Readiness of Portuguese-Speaking Countries

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords PALOP, ODR, ICT, Portuguese-speaking, dispute resolution
Authors Ana Maria Maia Gonçalves, Andrea Maia, Nuno Albuquerque e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this article, we investigate whether the conditions for the emergence of an online dispute resolution (ODR) market in Portuguese-speaking countries have been met. The size of the Portuguese-speaking population and the internet penetration in Portuguese-speaking countries may look promising, but what is called networked readiness as well as the legal context needs to be factored in before any conclusion may be drawn.

Ana Maria Maia Gonçalves
Ana Maria Maia Gonçalves, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML)

Andrea Maia
Andrea Maia, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML)

Nuno Albuquerque
Nuno Albuquerque, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML)

François Bogacz
François Bogacz, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML). Correspondence should be addressed to and

The Brazilian Law System and Some Reflections on the Use of Technology

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Brazilian, ODR, democracy, citizenship, judicial system, digital inclusion
Authors Beatriz Arruda and Renata Porto Adri
AbstractAuthor's information

    This contribution has emerged in response to the provocations of the editor, Daniel Rainey, about the interest in knowing the status and use of technology by the Brazilian judicial system. It is based on the premise that the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of technological tools, even in complex legal systems such as that in Brazil. There is still much to be built on it, and there are many opportunities for adopting online solutions as a means of accessing justice.

Beatriz Arruda
Beatrice Gabriel Arruda, specialist in Corporate Social Responsibility at PUC/MG, Certified Mediator ICFML-IMI, Platform Operations and Training Manager MOL – Online Mediation.

Renata Porto Adri
Renata Porto Adri, Master and PhD in State Law from PUC/SP, Legal Analyst of the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office, Mediator graduated by ESMP-SP and Certified Advanced by ICFML-IMI, Postgraduate in Mediation, Negotiation and Conflict Resolutions by UCP-Porto.

Transformacion digital de la mediacion

Praxis en Hispanoamerica

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords online dispute resolutions, transformación digital, Hispanoamérica, pandemia
Authors Alberto Elisavetsky and Maria Victoria Marun
AbstractAuthor's information

    El uso de la Tecnología aplicada a los métodos de resolución de conflictos, que desde hace varios años viene abriéndose camino con la presencia de las ODR (On line Dispute Resolution), han experimentado en el año 2020, a raíz del confinamiento obligatorio impuesto en muchos países como consecuencia de la Pandemia por covid 19, una proliferación asombrosa, constituyéndose en casi la alternativa válida de acceso a la justicia a nivel mundial. Por ello, nos proponemos abordar en este trabajo la transformación Digital que se ha ido desarrollando sobre las ODR, en los diferentes países de Hispanoamérica, y cómo la situación de Pandemia aceleró ese proceso de transformación.

Alberto Elisavetsky
Alberto Elisavetsky, Contador Público-Mediador; Experto en Educación a Distancia; Fundador y Presidente de Odr América Latina; Director del Observatorio de Conflictos y del Posgrado en Cibermediación en la Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero Argentina; Becaria del Centro de Tecnología y Conflicto de la Universidad de Massachusetts Estados Unidos; Miembro de la Junta de ICOD; Presidente de la Comisión de Negociación y Mediación del Consejo Profesional de Economía Ciencias de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; Profesor de Introducción a la Resolución de Conflictos, Negociación, Diseño de Sistemas de Resolución de Conflictos y Resolución de Disputas en Línea de diversas universidades y tribunales de América y Europa; Creador del Registro Global de Ciber-Mediadores; Creador de la Plataforma de simulación de mediaciones a distancia “Simediar”; redactor de lo digital Revista en Español Online Dispute Resolution Latin America Journal; Redactor en español de la revista digital; Creador del Consejo Latinoamericano para la Resolución de Conflictos en Línea. Miembro del Comité Asesor de Ex Curia International India; Creador de Odr Argentina, Perú, Brasil, México y España; Director del libro "La mediación a la luz de las nuevas tecnologías" Editorial Erreius; Embajador de la Paz Fundación Mil Milenios de Paz Pea Unesco;Miembro de la junta directiva de ICODR y presidente del comité de educación.

Maria Victoria Marun
Maria Victoria Marun, Abogada Mediadora. Profesora Superior en Ciencias Jurídicas. Especialista en Docencia Universitaria. Directora del Centro de Resolución de Conflictos del Colegio de Abogados y Procuradores de la 3° Circ. Judicial de Mendoza. Argentina. Docente Universitaria.. Posgraduada en Derecho Privado. Capacitadora en Legislación Escolar y Resolución de Conflictos en Instituciones Educativas. Docente universitaria. Miembro fundador de la Academia ODR Latinoamérica. Miembro del Foro Internacional de Mediadores Profesionales.- Miembro del Comité de Gestión de Cyberweek 2013 a 2016 y de E-MARC (Congreso Internacional de Resolución de conflictos a Distancia).. Contribuyente académico y disertante en varios eventos científicos nacionales e internacionales. Autora de varias producciones Académicas y publicaciones en temas Resolución de conflictos.

ODR and Online Courts in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Is It Correct to Affirm That Courts Are a Mere Service?

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords procedural law, dispute resolution, online dispute resolution, online courts, jurisdiction, online court hearings
Authors Dierle Nunes and Hugo Malone
AbstractAuthor's information

    Starting from the premise that the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus forced the growth of dispute resolution technologies in Brazil and around the world, this article presents a critique of one of the central arguments for the deployment of online dispute resolution techniques in the courts: that courts are a mere service. It proposes, therefore, the thesis that the term courts, as a synonym of the jurisdictional function, can be understood neither as a public service nor as a mere place but rather as a condition of possibility for fundamental rights, be it in physical or digital environments. In order to guarantee that the execution of procedural acts in digital environments conforms to the democratic constitutional procedure, this article proposes to create a seal of recognition to be granted by the Brazilian Bar Association (OAB) to the platforms that operate according to the due constitutional process. It is also suggested that minimal guidelines be formulated that are capable of offering a reference for the discussions, development, use and integration of online conflict resolution platforms, as well as that institutional protocols be adopted as a means of democratizing the application of technology in law.

Dierle Nunes
Dierle Nunes, PhD in Procedural Law from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC Minas) / Universitá degli Studi di Roma ‘La Sapienza’. Tenure Professor at PUC Minas PPGD (Law Graduate Program) and collaborator at UFMG. Member of the Commission of Jurists that advised on the 2015 Brazilian Civil Procedure Code at the Chamber of Deputies. Lawyer.

Hugo Malone
Hugo Malone, PhD. Student. Master in Procedural Law from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC Minas). Researcher in the research group ‘Processualismo Constitucional democrático e reformas processuais’ (Democratic Constitutional Proceduralism and Procedural Reforms). Legal Adviser at the Law Court of Minas Gerais. This article results from the research group ‘Processualismo Constitucional democrático e reformas processuais’ (‘Democratic Constitutional Processualism and Procedural Reforms’), linked to Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais and to Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and registered at CNPQ’s National Directory of Research Groups The group is a founding member of ‘ProcNet – International Research Network on Civil Justice and Contemporary Procedure’ ( This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.
Case Law

2022/1 EELC’s review of the year 2021

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2022
Authors Niklas Bruun, Filip Dorssemont, Zef Even e.a.

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year.

Niklas Bruun

Filip Dorssemont

Zef Even

Ruben Houweling

Marianne Hrdlicka

Anthony Kerr

Attila Kun

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Daiva Petrylaitė

Luca Ratti

Jan-Pieter Vos

    The Federal Labour Court of Germany has continued to specify the requirements for the legality of age limits in employer-funded pension plans under German law. In this case, according to the Court, the employer could impose a maximum age of 55 as a requirement of entry to the company pension plan.

Othmar K. Traber
Othmar Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel, Bremen.

ECJ 3 March 2022, case C-634/20 (Sosiaali- ja terveysalan lupa- ja valvontavirasto), Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

A – v – Sosiaali- ja terveysalan lupa- ja valvontavirasto, Finnish case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Free Movement, Work and Residence Permit

    A Member State may not impose requirements to be a doctor on a person if he possesses all formal qualifications, except for a minor certificate, as the imposed requirements are not proportionate.

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