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Article

ODR in the Metaverse

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords metaverse, ODR, virtual reality, hologram, avatar, mediation, negotiation, technology, algorithm, resolution
Authors Mayu Watanabe and Colin Rule
AbstractAuthor's information

    The term metaverse describes a vision for the next iteration of the internet where users can navigate computer networks that resemble interconnected 3D spaces, discovering information and interacting with others. While the concept of the metaverse is not really new, it has recently become a hot area for investment, as CEOs are now spending billions of dollars to bring it to fruition in the near future. While many questions remain about how the metaverse will work and whom it will benefit, early implementations of different components of the underlying technology (e.g. virtual reality, digital holograms and avatar-based interactions) are giving us a chance to see how these technologies might be useful in resolving disputes online. This article explores the promises and challenges of online dispute resolution (ODR) in the metaverse by defining the key components, describing recent metaverse experiences, analysing impacts on party psychology and assessing the reasons to be both optimistic and sceptical about the potential for metaverse technologies in ODR moving forward.


Mayu Watanabe
Mayu Watanabe is a specially appointed associate professor at the faculty of law at Rikkyo University in Tokyo. She is also a founding board member of the Japan Association for Online Dispute Resolution (JODR). https://odr.info/mayu-watanabe/.

Colin Rule
Colin Rule is CEO of Mediate.com and Arbitrate.com. https://odr.info/rule/.
Article

Access_open Mapping the Parameters of Online Dispute Resolution

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords ODR, ethics, online dispute resolution, alternative dispute resolution, technology, artificial intelligence
Authors Leah Wing
AbstractAuthor's information

    The definition of online dispute resolution (ODR) has become increasingly contested, particularly fueled by the recent explosion in the use of technology during the pandemic by courts and alternative dispute resolution practitioners. The recent expansion of stakeholders has contributed productively to the on-going discussion of the parameters of ODR that have implications for ethical practice. Does the use of video conferencing constitute ODR? What new procedural and substantive justice concerns arise with the use of technology in dispute handling and how should they be addressed? Since technology not only alters the role of third parties and disputants but also serves as a fourth party, what are the ethical implications for example, of employing artificial intelligence? How can explorations of the boundaries of ODR foster a re-imaging of 21st Century justice systems?
    This article explores the importance of the parameters of ODR for the ethical practice of dispute resolution and introduces a paper, Framing the Parameters of Online Dispute Resolution (National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution, 2022) that offers a descriptive ODR Framework; one that encompasses the broad range of views on the boundaries of ODR along an axis of increasing reliance on technology through various functions and stages of dispute handling. The article discusses the implications of this ODR Framework for enhancing ethical guidance and regulation for whatever definition of ODR is utilized.


Leah Wing
Leah Wing is Director, National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution; Co-Founder and President-elect, Board of Directors, International Council for Online Dispute Resolution; and Senior Lecturer II, Legal Studies Program, Department of Political Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (USA).
Article

The Pandemic, Climate Change and Mediation Converge in the Mediators’ Green Pledge

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords access to justice, online dispute resolution, impact of pandemic on mediation practice, commitments to “green” practice
Authors Ian Macduff
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article briefly examines the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on mediation practice and the potential benefits of maintaining a commitment to environmentally sound ways of practice as we emerge from the pandemic. It introduces the readers to a recent initiative, The Green Pledge, which is a voluntary commitment to reducing the carbon impact of practice.


Ian Macduff
Ian Macduff was, until early 2022, Director of the NZ Centre for ICT Law at the University of Auckland Law School, and before that was Associate Professor of Law and Director of the Centre for Dispute Resolution at Singapore Management University. He also taught at Victoria University of Wellington’s Law School for a number of years. He has been a practicing mediator for forty years and closely involved in the development of digital access to justice for the past twenty years.
Article

Lessons from India’s ODR Movement

Insights from Co-leading a Movement While Surviving a Pandemic between 2018 and 2021

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Online Dispute Resolution, startups, entrepreneurs, ICICI Bank, E-ADR challenge, NITI Aayog, Supreme Court of India, ODR Handbook 2021, ODR national policy report
Authors Chittu Nagarajan and Sachin Malhan
AbstractAuthor's information

    India’s vast case pendency and inefficiency of formal mechanisms greatly hinder the resolution of disputes. Aimed at moving India beyond these traditional limitations, the online dispute resolution (ODR) movement in India developed and gained tremendous momentum with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Stakeholders otherwise resistant to change, both in government and in industry, were compelled to embrace technology and resort to an online mode of resolving disputes. This article traces the steady and promising growth of ODR in India and examines the contributions of innovators, entrepreneurs and enterprises who recognized the need for an alternative model of dispute resolution and participated in championing the expansion of ODR in the country. The article identifies insights from the Indian experience that could be portable to other missions for law and justice innovation in the world.


Chittu Nagarajan
Chittu Nagarajan is widely recognized as a global pioneer in ODR, Fellow of the National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution, Founding Board Member of the International Council for Online Dispute Resolution. Chittu is the founder of CREK ODR and co-founded Modria.com, one of the first global ODR platforms of repute, ODRworld and ODRindia, the first online dispute resolution service provider in India in 2004. She also served as Head of the eBay and PayPal Community Court initiative. She can be reached at chittu@crekodr.com.

Sachin Malhan
Sachin Malhan is the co-founder of Agami, established in 2018 with the objective of accelerating innovation in law and justice. It has pursued its mandate with a focus on discovering new ideas, curating and connecting critical actors across silos, and telling the story of a different future for law and justice. Agami began its ODR initiative in late 2018 and continues to advance ODR across different business ecosystems and strata of society. Sachin can be reached at sachin@agami.in.
Article

ODR Readiness of Portuguese-Speaking Countries

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords PALOP, ODR, ICT, Portuguese-speaking, dispute resolution
Authors Ana Maria Maia Gonçalves, Andrea Maia, Nuno Albuquerque e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this article, we investigate whether the conditions for the emergence of an online dispute resolution (ODR) market in Portuguese-speaking countries have been met. The size of the Portuguese-speaking population and the internet penetration in Portuguese-speaking countries may look promising, but what is called networked readiness as well as the legal context needs to be factored in before any conclusion may be drawn.


Ana Maria Maia Gonçalves
Ana Maria Maia Gonçalves, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML)

Andrea Maia
Andrea Maia, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML)

Nuno Albuquerque
Nuno Albuquerque, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML)

François Bogacz
François Bogacz, Instituto de Formação e Certificação de Mediadores Lusófonos (ICFML). Correspondence should be addressed to ana@icfml.org and fb@icfml.org.
Article

The Brazilian Law System and Some Reflections on the Use of Technology

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Brazilian, ODR, democracy, citizenship, judicial system, digital inclusion
Authors Beatriz Arruda and Renata Porto Adri
AbstractAuthor's information

    This contribution has emerged in response to the provocations of the editor, Daniel Rainey, about the interest in knowing the status and use of technology by the Brazilian judicial system. It is based on the premise that the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of technological tools, even in complex legal systems such as that in Brazil. There is still much to be built on it, and there are many opportunities for adopting online solutions as a means of accessing justice.


Beatriz Arruda
Beatrice Gabriel Arruda, specialist in Corporate Social Responsibility at PUC/MG, Certified Mediator ICFML-IMI, Platform Operations and Training Manager MOL – Online Mediation.

Renata Porto Adri
Renata Porto Adri, Master and PhD in State Law from PUC/SP, Legal Analyst of the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office, Mediator graduated by ESMP-SP and Certified Advanced by ICFML-IMI, Postgraduate in Mediation, Negotiation and Conflict Resolutions by UCP-Porto.
Article

ODR and Online Courts in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Is It Correct to Affirm That Courts Are a Mere Service?

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2022
Keywords procedural law, dispute resolution, online dispute resolution, online courts, jurisdiction, online court hearings
Authors Dierle Nunes and Hugo Malone
AbstractAuthor's information

    Starting from the premise that the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus forced the growth of dispute resolution technologies in Brazil and around the world, this article presents a critique of one of the central arguments for the deployment of online dispute resolution techniques in the courts: that courts are a mere service. It proposes, therefore, the thesis that the term courts, as a synonym of the jurisdictional function, can be understood neither as a public service nor as a mere place but rather as a condition of possibility for fundamental rights, be it in physical or digital environments. In order to guarantee that the execution of procedural acts in digital environments conforms to the democratic constitutional procedure, this article proposes to create a seal of recognition to be granted by the Brazilian Bar Association (OAB) to the platforms that operate according to the due constitutional process. It is also suggested that minimal guidelines be formulated that are capable of offering a reference for the discussions, development, use and integration of online conflict resolution platforms, as well as that institutional protocols be adopted as a means of democratizing the application of technology in law.


Dierle Nunes
Dierle Nunes, PhD in Procedural Law from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC Minas) / Universitá degli Studi di Roma ‘La Sapienza’. Tenure Professor at PUC Minas PPGD (Law Graduate Program) and collaborator at UFMG. Member of the Commission of Jurists that advised on the 2015 Brazilian Civil Procedure Code at the Chamber of Deputies. Lawyer. dierle@cron.adv.br.

Hugo Malone
Hugo Malone, PhD. Student. Master in Procedural Law from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC Minas). Researcher in the research group ‘Processualismo Constitucional democrático e reformas processuais’ (Democratic Constitutional Proceduralism and Procedural Reforms). Legal Adviser at the Law Court of Minas Gerais. hugomalone@yahoo.com.br. This article results from the research group ‘Processualismo Constitucional democrático e reformas processuais’ (‘Democratic Constitutional Processualism and Procedural Reforms’), linked to Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais and to Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and registered at CNPQ’s National Directory of Research Groups http://dgp.cnpq.br/dgp/espelhogrupo/3844899706730420. The group is a founding member of ‘ProcNet – International Research Network on Civil Justice and Contemporary Procedure’ (http://laprocon.ufes.br/grupos-de-pesquisa-integrantes-da-rede). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.
Article

Morality in the Populist Radical Right

A Computer-Assisted Morality Frame Analysis of a Prototype

Journal Politics of the Low Countries, Issue 1 2022
Keywords Populist radical right, morality, frame analysis, word2vec, crimmigration
Authors Job P.H. Vossen
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article provides a computer-assisted morality framing analysis of Vlaams Belang’s 2019 manifesto. The VB is regarded in the literature as a prototypical example of the Populist Radical Right (PRR). We first concisely review what PRR politics is and what it consists of, tentatively distinguishing four elements that we hypothesise will materialise in corresponding subframes running throughout the manifesto. We point to a mismatch between the omnipresent role of morality in all PRR subframes and the little attention devoted to the concept in the PRR literature. We introduce a useful theory from social psychology into framing literature to create a novel methodological approach to frame analysis that builds a bridge between a qualitative content and a quantitative context approach. The results support our hypothesis that populism, nationalism, nativism and authoritarianism can be distinguished from one another. Additionally, we detect a fifth PRR subframe, crimmigration, by its unique role of morality.


Job P.H. Vossen
Job Vossen is a PhD candidate at the University of Antwerp. His research investigates (im)morality in political discoursing and its interacting with fear, solidarity and gender and sexuality. The corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Article

Opening an Absolute Majority A Typology of Motivations for Opening and Selecting Coalition Partners

Journal Politics of the Low Countries, Issue 1 2022
Keywords negotiation, absolute majority, oversized coalition, motivations, local election
Authors Geoffrey Grandjean and Valentine Meens
AbstractAuthor's information

    Following the municipal elections in the Walloon Region (Belgium) on 14 October 2018, 189 political groups won an absolute majority. Twenty-two of these decided not to exercise power alone, but favoured the formation of an oversized coalition by integrating a minority partner. The aim of this article is to identify the motivations behind the formation of a local coalition when one of the partners has an absolute majority. Semi-structured interviews with mayors and leaders of political groups in these municipalities make it possible to identify the motivations for, first, the choice to open and, second, the choice of a minority partner. By distinguishing between necessary and supporting motivations, this article shows that the search for greater representation is a necessary motivation for the choice to open, whereas personal affinities and memories of the past are necessary motivations for choosing minority partners. By prioritising motivations, this article shows that.


Geoffrey Grandjean
Geoffrey Grandjean is Professor of Political Science at the Faculty of Law, Political Science and Criminology of the University of Liege and Director of the Institut de la decision publique.

Valentine Meens
Valentine Meens is Assistant of Political Science at the Faculty of Law, Political Science and Criminology of the University of Liege.
Article

Meetings between victims and offenders suffering from a mental disorder in forensic mental health facilities: a qualitative exploration of their subjective experiences

Journal The International Journal of Restorative Justice, Issue Online First 2022
Keywords Victim-offender meetings, restorative justice, forensic mental health, victimology, perception
Authors Mariëtte van Denderen and Michiel van der Wolf
AbstractAuthor's information

    Most studies about victim-offender meetings have been performed within prison populations, with little reference to offenders diagnosed with mental disorders. In establishing the effects of such meetings, these studies often use quantitative measures. Little is known about meetings between victims and offenders with mental disorders and about the more qualitative subjective experiences of the participants regarding these meetings. In this interview study, we inquired into the subjective experiences of sixteen participants in victim-offender meetings, six of whom are victims and ten offenders of severe crimes, currently residing in forensic mental health facilities. Topics of the interviews included benefits of the meeting and perceptions of each other prior to and after the meeting. Important benefits that participants experienced from meeting each other were reconnecting with family, processing the offence and contributing to each other’s well-being. Such benefits are comparable to those mentioned in studies on meetings with offenders without a mental disorder, challenging the practice that mentally disordered offenders are often excluded from such meetings. Most victims experienced a positive change in perception of the offender owing to the meeting. They perceived the offender as a human being and associated him less exclusively with his offence. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.


Mariëtte van Denderen
M.Y. van Denderen is criminologist and senior researcher at the Forensic Psychiatric Centre Dr. S. van Mesdag, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Michiel van der Wolf
M.J.F. van der Wolf is Professor of Forensic Psychiatry at Leiden University and Associate Professor of Criminal Law at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Corresponding author: M.Y. van Denderen at m.van.denderen@fpcvanmesdag.nl. Funding: This work was supported by an international, non-governmental, organization that prefers to stay anonymous (more information is available at request). Acknowledgements: We want to thank the victims, bereaved individuals and offenders who shared their experiences about the meeting. We would also like to thank the social workers of the FPC Dr. S. van Mesdag and FPC the Oostvaardersclinic, among which H. van Splunter, and Perspectief Herstelbemiddeling for their cooperation. We thank F. Fierstra, L. Gunnink, E. de Jong and F. Drijfhout for transcribing the interviews. Disclosure statement: No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

David Tait
David Tait is Professor of Justice Research, Western Sydney University, Australia.

Munzer Emad
Munzer Emad is a doctoral candidate in Law, Western Sydney University, Australia. Corresponding author: David Tait at d.tait@westernsydney.edu.au.
Conversations on restorative justice

A talk with Howard Zehr

Journal The International Journal of Restorative Justice, Issue 1 2022
Authors Brunilda Pali
Author's information

Brunilda Pali
Brunilda Pali is Senior Researcher, Social and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium. Corresponding author: Brunilda Pali at brunilda.pali@kuleuven.be.
Article

Access_open Retribution, restoration and the public dimension of serious wrongs

Journal The International Journal of Restorative Justice, Issue 1 2022
Keywords public wrongs, R.A. Duff, agent-relative values, criminalisation, punishment
Authors Theo van Willigenburg
AbstractAuthor's information

    Restorative justice has been criticised for not adequately giving serious consideration to the ‘public’ character of crimes. By bringing the ownership of the conflict involved in crime back to the victim and thus ‘privatising’ the conflict, restorative justice would overlook the need for crimes to be treated as public matters that concern all citizens, because crimes violate public values, i.e., values that are the foundation of a political community. Against this I argue that serious wrongs, like murder or rape, are violations of agent-neutral values that are fundamental to our humanity. By criminalising such serious wrongs we show that we take such violations seriously and that we stand in solidarity with victims, not in their capacity as compatriots but as fellow human beings. Such solidarity is better expressed by organising restorative procedures that serve the victim’s interest than by insisting on the kind of public condemnation and penal hardship that retributivists deem necessary ‘because the public has been wronged’. The public nature of crimes depends not on the alleged public character of the violated values but on the fact that crimes are serious wrongs that provoke a (necessarily reticent) response from government officials such as police, judges and official mediators.


Theo van Willigenburg
Theo van Willigenburg is Research Fellow at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Faculteit Religie en Theologie, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Corresponding author: Theo van Willigenburg at t.van.willigenburg@vu.nl.

Claudia Mazzucato
Claudia Mazzucato is Associate professor of Criminal Law at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy. She has known the Parents Circle-Families Forum since 2005 and is engaged with them in joint projects concerning restorative responses to political and collective violence and violent extremism. Corresponding author: Claudia Mazzucato at claudia.mazzucato@unicatt.it.

Tim Chapman
Tim Chapman is an independent researcher and trainer and chair of the European Forum for Restorative Justice since 2016. Corresponding author: Tim Chapman at info@timchapman.eu.

Robi Damelin
Robi Damelin is an Israeli active member of the Parents Circle-Families Forum, for which she acts as spokesperson and Director of International Relations. Detailed information and updates about the projects, events and activities mentioned in this Notes from the Field can be found at the Forum’s official website: www.theparentscircle.org. Contact author: Robi Damelin at damelin@zahav.net.il.

Layla Alsheikh
Layla Alsheikh is a Palestinian active member of the Parents Circle-Families Forum. Detailed information and updates about the projects, events and activities mentioned in this contribution can be found at the Forum’s official website: www.theparentscircle.org. Corresponding author: Layla Alsheikh at lailaalshek@gmail.com.

Gerry Johnstone
Gerry Johnstone is a Professor of Law at the University of Hull, UK. Corresponding author: Gerry Johnstone at J.G.Johnstone@hull.ac.uk.
Article

Preparing Mediators for Text-Based Mediations on ODR Platforms

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 2 2021
Keywords online dispute resolution (ODR), mediation, dispute resolution, alternative dispute resolution (ADR), mediation training, text-based systems
Authors Joseph van ’t Hooft, Wan Zhang and Sarah Mader
AbstractAuthor's information

    The COIVD-19 pandemic has drawn an increasing level of attention to the role of online dispute resolution (ODR) in dispute resolution systems. As ODR becomes increasingly prevalent, unique characteristics of conducting text-based mediations via ODR platforms begin to surface, warranting discussion on modifying mediator practises to adapt to ODR platforms. This article shines a light on the advantages and disadvantages of text-based mediations through interviews with court administrators and mediators with text-based mediation experience. Accordingly, this article proposes recommendations on training mediators to use ODR platforms and modifying their practises to achieve the best outcomes in text-based mediations. Focusing on the qualitative data and information gathered from these conducted interviews, this article seeks to offer practical advice about preparing mediators to participate in text-based mediations.


Joseph van ’t Hooft
Joseph van ’t Hooft is Juris Doctor Candidate (graduating in 2022) at The Ohio State University, Moritz College of Law.

Wan Zhang
Wan Zhang is Juris Doctor Candidate (graduating in 2022) at The Ohio State University, Moritz College of Law.

Sarah Mader
Sarah Mader is Juris Doctor Candidate (graduating in 2022) at The Ohio State University, Moritz College of Law.
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