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Article

Een gemiste kans? De rol van YouTube in de verkiezingscampagne van 2010

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2012
Keywords YouTube, Web 2.0, election campaigns, political advertising, Obama, the Netherlands
Authors Annemarie S. Walter and Philip van Praag
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article is one of the first to systematically examine parties’ use of YouTube in Dutch election campaigns and to consider its effects. Content analysis of 406 YouTube ads and additional research show that nine political parties made use of this new campaign instrument in the 2010 Dutch parliamentary election campaign. However, unlike U.S. presidential candidate Obama, the parties did not really use YouTube to mobilize and involve voters. Instead, YouTube was used only as a means to broadcast advertisements for the party. These ads only reached a small audience and had little influence online as well as in the print media. Furthermore, this study examines which of these ads were more likely to reach a large number of viewers. The results demonstrate that short, comparative ads that contain the party leader, that are uploaded early on in the campaign, that stem from small or winning parties and that have numerous links on external websites are likely to reach more viewers.


Annemarie S. Walter
Annemarie Walter is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Communicatiewetenschap van de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam. Zij houdt zich vooral bezig met verkiezingscampagnes, politieke partijen en media.

Philip van Praag
Philip van Praag is universitair hoofddocent Politicologie bij de afdeling Politicologie van de Universteit van Amsterdam. Hij houdt zich met name bezig met politieke partijen, verkiezingscampagnes en de relatie tussen de media en politiek.
Article

Leidt meer kennis over de Europese Unie tot een sterkere Europese identiteit?

Een vergelijkend onderzoek bij adolescenten in 21 lidstaten

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2012
Keywords European identity, European Union, ICCS 2009, political knowledge
Authors Soetkin Verhaegen, Marc Hooghe and Yves Dejaeghere
AbstractAuthor's information

    Strengthening European citizenship is often considered as a ‘cure’ for the democratic deficit and the lack of legitimacy of the European Union. The present article focuses on the identity component of European citizenship, which is a core component of European citizenship. We distinguish two possible ways to strengthen European identity: a cognitive one (more knowledge about the EU leads to a stronger identity) and a utilitarian one (living in a member state that benefits more from its EU-membership leads to a stronger European identity). We test both explanatory models using a multilevel analysis on the data of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. 70,502 adolescents from 21 European member states were questioned in this study. Results indicate that knowledge about the EU only has a limited effect on European identity. The degree in which a member state contributes to the European budget does not seem to have an effect on the strength of European identity at all.


Soetkin Verhaegen
Soetkin Verhaegen is onderzoeker aan het Center for Citizenship and Democracy van de KULeuven. Zij is verbonden aan de Parent Child Socialization Study en bereidt een doctoraat voor over de ontwikkeling van Europese identiteit.

Marc Hooghe
Marc Hooghe is gewoon hoogleraar aan de KULeuven en visiting professor aan de Université Lille-II en de Universität Mannheim. Hij bekleedt dit jaar de Francqui-leerstoel aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Yves Dejaeghere
Yves Dejaeghere is doctor in de politieke wetenschappen, verbonden aan het Center for Citizenship and Democracy van de KULeuven. Hij was medeverantwoordelijk voor de Belgian Political Panel Study (BPPS, 2006-2011).
Article

Het democratisch mandaat van Nederlandse politieke partijen: crisis of continuïteit?

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2012
Keywords party mandate, political representation, political parties, Dutch national elections, parliamentary behaviour
Authors Tom Louwerse
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article studies the extent to which Dutch political parties fulfil their electoral mandates. The central question is how collective mandate fulfilment has developed over the last sixty years. Increasing electoral volatility, changes in party organizations and the rise of populist parties could have resulted in a decrease of party mandate fulfilment. Contrary to previous studies, this article studies the mandate in terms of congruence between the electoral and parliamentary party competition. This allows for the study of opposition parties’ mandate fulfilment. Election manifestos and parliamentary debates are studied for six elections and the subsequent parliaments (between 1950-2006). The structure of the party competition is rather congruent before and after elections for all of the cases, except 1972-1977. There is no evidence for a decline of the degree to which parties collectively fulfil their electoral mandates.


Tom Louwerse
Tom Louwerse is als postdoctoraal onderzoeker en docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoek richt zich voornamelijk op politieke representatie, politieke partijen en het parlement.
Article

Electorale competitie en het contact met de bevolking

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 2012
Keywords electoral systems, constituency representation, Belgium and the Netherlands
Authors Audrey André and Sam Depauw
AbstractAuthor's information

    Electoral institutions shape the incentive that elected representatives have to cultivate a personal vote, a geographically-concentrated personal vote in particular. But are electoral institutions able to make representatives do what they would not do otherwise and to make them not do what they otherwise would have done? Using data from the cross-national PARTIREP MP Survey, it is demonstrated that electoral institutions shape elected representatives’ local orientation. Local orientation decreases as district magnitude grows – regardless of what representatives think about political representation. But representatives’ conceptions of representation do shape their uptake in the legislative arena from their contacts with individual constituents. The effect of the electoral incentive grows stronger as elected representatives think of representation as a bottom-up rather than a top-down process.


Audrey André
Audrey André is post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Haar doctoraat (als FWO-aspirant) onderzocht de effecten van electorale instituties op het gedrag van parlementsleden in het kiesdistrict.

Sam Depauw
Sam Depauw is post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en coördineert de PARTIREP ‘Participation and Representation in Modern Democracies’-bevraging bij nationale en regionale parlementsleden (met de steun van BELSPO).
Article

De selectie van verkiesbare kandidaten

Een analyse van de Belgische Kamerverkiezingen 1999-2010

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 2012
Keywords candidate selection, representation, Belgium
Authors Gert-Jan Put and Bart Maddens
AbstractAuthor's information

    In a closed or semi-open PR-system, the designation of the MPs is primarily determined by their position on the list. In this paper, we attempt to find out on the basis of which criteria a party selects the candidates who are most likely to be elected, due to their high and/or visible position on the list. We do so by comparing these realistic candidates with the candidates on unrealistic positions on the list. A multi-level logistic regression analysis of the Flemish candidates in four subsequent federal elections in Belgium shows that the selectorates have a marked preference for incumbents and for mayors. Aldermen also stand a better chance of being elected, but only if they are from a larger communality. Women are strongly underrepresented amongst the realistic candidates, but this is only due to the fact that there are relatively few women mayors and incumbents.


Gert-Jan Put
Gert-Jan Put is als aspirant van het FWO verbonden aan het Centrum voor Politicologie van de KULeuven. Hij bereidt een proefschrift voor over de geografische strategie van partijen bij verkiezingen.

Bart Maddens
Bart Maddens is hoogleraar aan het Centrum voor Politicologie van de KULeuven. Hij doet onderzoek over partij- en campagnefinanciering en politieke partijen in multilevelsystemen.
Article

Vertegenwoordiging van oude en nieuwe breuklijnen in de Lage Landen

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 2012
Keywords group representation, members of parliament, Low Countries, class, gender, ethnicity
Authors Karen Celis and Bram Wauters
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article investigates whether group-based politics is still relevant in Belgian and Dutch politics. Based on the PARTIREP MP Survey it more precisely studies the extent to which Belgian and Dutch parliamentarians in comparison to other European countries attach importance to the representation of ‘old’ cleavage groups (class and religious groups) or new groups (age groups, women and ethnic minorities), and which strategies are considered most appropriate. Group representation of old and new groups is found to be of great importance in both countries. Class is not dead and age groups are also highly represented. In contrast, religious groups and ethnic minorities receive far less attention in the Low Countries. Notwithstanding these similarities, there is also cross-country variation regarding the level of importance (greater in the Netherlands), the represented groups and the strategies for representation.


Karen Celis
Karen Celis is als onderzoeksprofessor verbonden aan de Vakgroep Politieke Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Zij verricht onderzoek naar de politieke representatie van groepen (vrouwen, etnische minderheden, LBGT, leeftijdsgroepen en sociale klassen).

Bram Wauters
Bram Wauters is docent aan de Faculteit Handelswetenschappen en Bestuurskunde van de Hogeschool Gent en gastdocent aan de Faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Gent. Zijn onderzoek gaat over politieke vertegenwoordiging, electorale systemen en politieke partijen.
Article

Ontzuiling van kiesgedrag. Een proces van generationele vervanging gedreven door cognitieve mobilisatie?

Een age-period-cohort-analyse van stemmen voor CDA en PvdA in Nederland, 1971-2010

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 2012
Keywords generational replacement, age-period-cohort-analysis, composition effects, cognitive mobilization, the Netherlands, cleavage voting
Authors Ruth Dassonneville
AbstractAuthor's information

    Electoral behavior has changed considerably over the last few decades. The Netherlands are exemplary of how the cleavage structure has waned and how this has led to a weakening of the bonds between parties and voters and to higher levels of electoral volatility. Christian democratic and social democratic parties are most affected by these changes, because of their strong roots in the cleavage structure. The alterations in electoral behavior are generally assumed to be evolving gradually through a process of generational replacement. Composition effects on the one hand and a weakening of the impact of socio-structural factors, partly caused by cognitive mobilization on the other hand are considered to be the mechanisms behind this generational change. This paper tests these assumptions with regard to the Netherlands on the basis of the Dutch Parliamentary Election Surveys, 1971-2010. The findings indicate that while some variation between different birth cohorts is visible, most of the differences in voting for both of these parties, however, are situated at the level of election years. Furthermore, with regard to what drives change over time, the analyses indicate that while composition effects and changes in the effects of socio-structural variables are of some importance, cognitive mobilization is not causing the change observed.


Ruth Dassonneville
Ruth Dassonneville is als aspirant van het FWO verbonden aan het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen van de KULeuven. Ze bereidt een proefschrift voor over electorale volatiliteit in West-Europa.
Article

Is gender bias een mythe?

Op zoek naar verklaringen voor de beperkte aanwezigheid van vrouwelijke politici in het Vlaamse televisienieuws

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 2012
Keywords gender, mediated politics, news coverage, journalism, television news, Flanders
Authors Debby Vos
AbstractAuthor's information

    This study analyses the news coverage of female politicians in Flanders (Belgium). We investigate whether the deficiency of media attention for female politicians is due to structural factors or whether the news media themselves create a gender bias. For this purpose, we examine eleven possible explanations for the gender bias. On one hand the characteristics of the politicians, such as their function, can influence their news exposure and on the other hand the features of the news media, such as the broadcasting station, can be of importance. Overall, our evidence suggests that mainly the function determines the news exposure of female politicians and not their gender. Nevertheless, female politicians still get less speaking time, even when controlling for all other variables. We can conclude that a real gender bias exists in the Flemish television news: journalists and editors give significantly less attention to female politicians compared to their male colleagues.


Debby Vos
Debby Vos is als doctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Media, Middenveld en Politiek (M2P) binnen de Universiteit Antwerpen. Zij doet onderzoek naar de media-aandacht die politici krijgen en de determinanten daarvan.
Article

Tweede Orde Personalisering: Voorkeurstemmen in Nederland

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 2012
Keywords preference voting, personalization, Dutch national elections, expressive voting
Authors Joop J.M. Van Holsteyn and Rudy B. Andeweg
AbstractAuthor's information

    If the impact of party leaders on the electoral fate of their parties may be called first order personalization, this paper addresses second order personalization: a preference for an individual candidate having to do with that person embedded in a prior choice for the candidate’s party. Using survey data and election results with respect to intraparty preference voting in The Netherlands, this study explores the characteristics of both voters casting a vote for a candidate other than the party leader and candidates receiving preference votes. Given the increase in intraparty preference voting, second order personalization has increased considerably in recent decades. Moreover, the correlates of second order personalization differ from those identified for first order personalization: intraparty preference votes are cast more often by higher educated, politically interested and efficacious female voters. Intraparty preference voting also seems to be a form of expressive rather than instrumental electoral behaviour: female candidates, and to a lesser extent ethnic candidates, receive more preference votes, but such votes are cast predominantly for the highest placed female (or ethnic) candidate on the list – candidates who would be elected on the basis of their position on the party list anyway.


Joop J.M. Van Holsteyn
Joop van Holsteyn is als universitair hoofddocent en bijzonder hoogleraar Kiezersonderzoek verbonden aan het Instituut voor Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoek is gericht op diverse aspecten van politieke houdingen, publieke opinie en politiek en electoraal gedrag.

Rudy B. Andeweg
Rudy Andeweg is als hoogleraar empirische politicologie verbonden aan het Instituut voor Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoek is gericht op diverse aspecten van politieke representatie.
Article

Politieke participatie: Wat doet dat met een mens?

Een panelstudie van Belgische lokale data

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 2012
Keywords political participation, political knowledge, political trust, emancipation process, local politics
Authors Peter Thijssen and Didier Dierckx
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this paper we study both long term and short term individual effects of political participation at the local level. Participatory theorists argue that political participation could lead to individual emancipation in terms of a rise of political knowledge and, in the long term, political trust. Indeed, in the short term the increased political knowledge associated with participation might enable citizens to better define their self-interest, which may be inconsistent with actual policies pursued by the local authorities and thus might be conductive to distrust. In the empirical part we will test these assertions using two-wave panel data for a random sample of 457 individuals in the district of Deurne (Antwerp – Belgium). Our results suggest that in the short term participation leads to more local political knowledge and distrust in the local administration. However, we do not find a significant increase in political trust in the long term.


Peter Thijssen
Peter Thijssen is hoofddocent aan het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen. Hij is lid van de onderzoeksgroep Media, Middenveld en Politiek (M2P). Zijn onderzoek spitst zich toe op de wisselwerking tussen publieke opinie en politieke participatie.

Didier Dierckx
Didier Dierckx is wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen. Hij werkt aan het beleidsondersteunend onderzoek ‘Focus op Deurne’, alsook aan een proefschrift waarin wordt gezocht naar contextuele verklaringen voor lokale politieke participatie.
Article

Waar en wanneer spreken mannen en vrouwen over politiek?

De sekseverschillen in politieke discussie in hun sociale en politieke context

Journal Res Publica, Issue 1 2012
Keywords deliberative democracy, political talk, gender differences, Belgium
Authors Didier Caluwaerts
AbstractAuthor's information

    Deliberative democrats claim that political deliberation among citizens increases the legitimacy of and support for democratic decision-making. The question is, however, whether deliberative democracy can realize its added value in the real world of politics where political discussion is characterized by persisting inequalities. This paper tries to contextualize the gender gap in political talk by taking into account the social (i.e., discussion networks) and political context (i.e., campaign effects) in which political debate takes place. Based on previous research we argue that women prefer to discuss politics in relatively like-minded, cohesive networks, while men prefer more confrontational networks. Moreover, we expect the gender gap to depend on the electoral context, in that the gender gap disappears in later campaign phases. These two arguments were tested and confirmed using data gathered in the Partirep Regional Election Survey in 2009.


Didier Caluwaerts
Didier Caluwaerts is postdoctoraal onderzoeker in de Vakgroep Politieke Wetenschappen van de VUB. Zijn onderzoek gaat over deliberatieve democratie in diep verdeelde samenlevingen.
Article

Strijden voor of om de publieke omroep?

Hoe subsidiariteit de Europese Commissie en de lidstaten verdeelt in het staatssteunbeleid

Journal Res Publica, Issue 1 2012
Keywords state aid, public service broadcasting, cultural objectives, media policy
Authors Karen Donders
AbstractAuthor's information

    Since the early 1990s, the European Commission applies the State aid rules (part of European competition law) to the funding of national and subnational public broadcasters. This article analyzes to what extent discussions on the regulation and funding of public service broadcasting are determined by a conflictual notion of subsidiarity. Focusing on encounters between the European Commission on the one hand and Germany, the Netherlands and Flanders on the other hand, the article concludes that Member States and the European Commission focus more on competence divisions than on substantive discussions about the future of public service broadcasting. This is particularly regrettable as the digital age requires a thorough re-thinking of the role of public broadcasters in Western European democracies.


Karen Donders
Karen Donders doceert European Media Policy en European Information Society aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Ze is senior onderzoeker bij het IBBT-SMIT (Vrije Universiteit Brussel). Haar postdoctorale onderzoek wordt gefinancierd door het FWO. Ze is gespecialiseerd in publiek omroepbeleid, Europees mededingingsbeleid in de mediasector en Europees mediabeleid.
Article

De impact van multi-level governance op de democratische input in het EU-handelsbeleid onder het Verdrag van Lissabon

Journal Res Publica, Issue 1 2012
Keywords multi-level governance, subsidiarity, EU trade policy, legitimacy, participation
Authors Fabienne Bossuyt
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article examines the impact of multi-level governance (MLG) on the democratic input into European Union (EU) trade policy under the Lisbon Treaty. Focusing on two recently concluded EU trade agreements, i.e. the multi-party agreement with Colombia and Peru and the association agreement with Central America, the article traces several dangers and risks that MLG entails for democratic accountability and participation, which are closely tied to the strong output-oriented nature of MLG and its emphasis on technical effi ciency. These dangers of MLG – the article argues – are not accidental, but are fi rmly rooted within an underlying hegemonic social-economic trend, characterised by an intentional (neo-liberal dominated) attempt to de-politise, and even de-democratise, European political policy-making.


Fabienne Bossuyt
Fabienne Bossuyt is doctor-assistent aan het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Gent. Haar onderzoek richt zich op het extern beleid van de Europese Unie, waaronder de sociale dimensie van het EU-handelsbeleid.
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