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    In view of the pessimism on the two EU presidencies (Greece and Germany) before 1994 and ofa number ofpolitica[ breakthroughs that has been reached during that year, one can say that the last year of the Tweve (since 1995 the EU consists of fifteen members) has been relatively succesful. It was a year in which the economic recession came to an end, in which the enlargement negotiations have been concluded, and in which the Europe Agreements entered into force. At the same time, however, 1994 showed the first signs of future problems with which the enlarged EU will have to cope. The expected eastern and southern enlargements will necessitate institutional adaptations and will intensify the already bitter discussions on the EU's budget. At the same time, the EU will have to find ways to cape with rising unemployment. This will have to happen in a period during which the member states are having difficulties to fullfil the budgetary conditions of Maastricht. In other words, the difficult years are not yet over for the process of European integration.


Bart Kerremans

    This article makes first a critical review of the different definitions in the scientific literature of the 'underclass' concept. It is argued that the American and British concept of underclass is not necessarily transportable to Europe. The next part adresses the question of a possible emerging urban underclass in Belgium. It is concluded that although Belgium has to fight against social problems associated with underclass formation in the US and Britain, it has until now no clearcut underclass. The main reasons for this are that economic marginality is not permanent and stable, and that economic marginality, deviant values and criminal behaviour are not systematically coinciding.


Marco Martiniello
Article

De Sociale Ruimte Hertekenen

Een gevalstudie aan de hand van de constructie van de bedreigende immigrant in Vlaanderen 1930/1980

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1995
Authors Marc Swyngedouw
Abstract

    This article exposes comparable social mechanisms that have generated the social construction of threatening immigrants in Europe in the thirties and in the eighties. The analysis is building on Bourdieu 's theory of the construction of social space and the genesis of social groups. This semiotic-praxiological approach is used to explain why the specific historical and socio-economical conditions in the thirties and eighties have lead to the construction of Jews and Muslims as threatening immigrants. Our discussion focuses on the exemplary caseof the 'migrant problem' in historical and actual political discourse in Flanders (Belgium). Where at the end of the thirties the notion 'immigrant' referred exclusively to Jews, in the eighties it is used for Turkish and Maroccan 'guestworkers'. In spite of the specific historical and social situation of Jewish and Muslim immigrants parallel social mechanisms and discourses emerge in the redrawing of the social space by creating 'theatening' immigrants/strangers. These mechanisms are a religious anti Judaism/anti-Islamism, rapid social economie change fueling an economical argumented antiJew/anti-muslim and (cultural) racism legitimized by an internationally disseminated ethno-nationalism.


Marc Swyngedouw

H.L. van Traa-Engelman

E. Morgan de Rivery
Article

Proprietary Rights in Remote Sensing Images

Legal Aspects of Commercial Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 1995
Authors M. Mejía-Kaiser

M. Mejía-Kaiser
Article

Recent Developments at EUTELSAT

Recent Developments in the Law of Intergovernmental Organizations Dealing with Outer Space Matters

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1995
Authors C. Roisse

C. Roisse
Article

Recent Developments in Eumetsat

Recent Developments in the Law of Intergovernmental Organizations Dealing with Outer Space Matters

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1995
Authors V. Thiem

V. Thiem
Article

Privatisation and International Telecommunications Organisations

Recent Developments in the Law of Intergovernmental Organizations Dealing with Outer Space Matters

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1995
Authors F. Lyall

F. Lyall
Article

The European Space Agency: Present and Future

Recent Developments in the Law of Intergovernmental Organizations Dealing with Outer Space Matters

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1995
Authors G. Lafferranderie

G. Lafferranderie

Y. Hashimoto

P.B. Larsen
Article

Introduction, Problem and Winning Briefs

4th Manfred Lachs Space Law Moot Court Competition, 1995: Case Concerning the Use of the Geostationary Orbit for Satellite Broadcasting (Agrethia v. Pathron)

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1995
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