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Boštjan M. Zupančič
Dipl. iur. (Ljubljana), LL.M., S.J.D. (Harvard), Professor of Law (U.S. and Slovenia), former Vice-Chairman, U.N. Committee against Torture, former Justice of the Constitutional Court of Slovenia; since 1998, Judge of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Views expressed herein are strictly the author's own and do not reflect, in whole or in part, the opinions of any of the above institutions.

Nadirsyah Hosen
Nadirsyah Hosen is a lecturer at the State University of Islamic Studies (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. He holds a Bachelor degree (IAIN, Jakarta), a Graduate Diploma in Islamic Studies (University of New England), a Master of Laws in Comparative Law(Northern Territory University), and a Master of Arts with Honours from the University of New England.

Lord President of the Court of Sessions and Lord-Justice General of Scotland, 1989 to 1996; Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, 1996 to present.

Gülüm Bayraktaroğlu
Research Assistant and PhD Student at Ankara University, Faculty of Law, Department of Private International Law; MA in International Relations at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara; LLM in European Law at the University of Exeter, UK. The author would like to thank Dr. Gerrit Betlem at the University of Exeter School of Law for his useful comments and support.

Michelle Bogre

Lucy Khairy
Lucy Khairy is corporate counsel for Brylane Inc., part of the French conglomerate Pinault-Printempms-Redoute (PPR). The views expressed herein are the author's own and do not reflect the views of Bryland, PPR, or their associates.

Ieva Azanda
LL.M (Finance) candidate at the Institute of Law and Finance, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main; Summa Cum Laude LL.B from Concordia International University, Estonia. Currently, an intern at the DG Legal Services of the European Central Bank.

Hans Herbert von Arnim
Hans Herbert von Arnim is professor at the German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer and member of the Research Institute for Public Administration of this university. This text is based on a lecture held at the conference of the ‘Centre for European Constitutional Law’ dealing with ‘The Political Parties in the 21st Century’ in Athens on 14 June 2002 and was updated for this publication. The author would like to thank Martin Schurig and Russel Cope for their valuable help with the translation of the text into English.

Glenda Murphree
Glenda Murphree, J.D., 2004, Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis; member of 2003-2004 Indiana International & Comparative Law Review; and member of C.U.R.E. (Citizens United for Rehabilitation of Errants).

Guðrún Bergsteinsdóttir
1s Cand. Jur. University of Iceland 2000; admitted to the Bar 2001; LL.M. in EC Law, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 2003. Currently on maternity leave. This article is based on the writer's LL.M. thesis. I wish to thank assistant Professor Dr Christa Tobler, LL.M., University of Basel, Switzerland and Leiden, The Netherlands, for her valuable supervision.

Helen Xanthaki
Dr. Helen Xanthaki is a Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London, and the Academic Director of the Sir William Dale Centre for Legislative Studies. I would like to thank Prof. Rosa Maria Greaves, Prof. Janet Dine, Prof. Alessandro Pizzorusso, Ms. Holly Cullen and Dr. Constantin Stefanou for their valuable comments on earlier drafts of this paper. Remaining inadequacies can of course only be attributed to the author.

Dita Sole
LL.B., Concordia International University Estonia School of Law; LL.M., Harvard University School of Law; Attorney-at-Law, New York. This article is based on my final thesis at Concordia.

Dimitris Melissas
Associate Professor in Law, Pandeion University of Athens; Member of the Board of the Centre for European Constitutional Law - Themistocles and Dimitris Tsatsos Foundation.

State Street,, and the Proposal for an EU Directive on the Patentability of Computer-Implemented Inventions

- A Comparison of Software Patentability in the United States and the European Union -

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2003
Authors Michael Tegethoff
Author's information

Michael Tegethoff
1st State Examination in Law, University of Düsseldorf (2001); LL.M., University of Edinburgh (2002). Mr. Tegethoff is a Ph.D. researcher at Düsseldorf University. He is a member of the CSP Network for International Politics and Co-operation. The author is grateful to Ross G. Anderson and Amy C. Kilmer for their comments on an earlier draft of this essay. All remaining mistakes, however, are exclusively those of the author.

Bruno Frey
Institute for Empirical Economic Research, University of Zurich, Blümlisalpstrasse 10, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Tel: ++41-1-634 37 30/31; Fax: ++41-1-634 49 07; E-mail: I am grateful for helpful comments to Reiner Eichenberger and Reto Jegen.

Lobbying in de Europese Unie

Is er nog toekomst voor nationale belangengroepen?

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2003
Authors Pieter Bouwen

    This article studies the lobbying strategies of national business associations against the background of increasing Europeanization. It addresses the question whether national associations have withered away during the process of European integration. On the basis of neo-functionalist integration theory and the multi-level governance (MLG) perspective, a number of hypotheses are generated about the fate of national associations in the European integration process. An extensive empirica[ study of the EU financial services sector analyzes these hypotheses. The data show that European financial integration has not caused the withering away of national business associations as predicted by neofunctionalist theory. The data not only confirm the MLG hypothesis that national associations develop direct lobbying strategies at different levels of the EU multi-level system in order to gain access to the European decision-making process. In addition, the results also confirm the hypothesis that national associations undertake indirect lobbying strategies (through membership in European associations) with the aim of gaining institutional access. Finally, the degree to which national associations gain access to the European institutions is explained in terms of a theory of supply and demand for access goods.

Pieter Bouwen

    A significant international literature has shown that political fragmentation the existence of multiple parties in a governing body - affects policy-making. Indeed, an increase in the number of parties increases the number of viewpoints considered, but on the other hand may also lead to a decrease in government flexibility. This paper first of all shows that Flemish municipalities often have fragmented governments as measured by the number of parties represented in the municipal council and the College of Mayor and Alderman. We also show that this fragmentation at the local level affects policy-making, though not necessarily in the same directions found in the international literature.

Benny Geys

Politiek als One-Man-Show

Over de rol van kranten in de personalisering van de politiek

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2003
Authors Peter Van Aelst and Kristel Van Mierlo

    There seems a growing consensus on the personalisation of politics, meaning that not parties but more and more individual politicians have become the central actors in politics. The media, and especially television, are given a prominent role in this tendency towards 'candidate centred politics'. In this article we discuss the role of newspapers in this regard. Is there a more personalised and less party political way of reporting in the written press? On the basis of a longitudinal study (1958-1999) of two Flemish newspapers we found only a modest and gradual tendency towards a personalisation of politics. Political parties have not been removed to the backstage of political reporting and remain a dominant player in the written press.

Peter Van Aelst

Kristel Van Mierlo

Het Europa van de opportunities

Analyse van de overlevingsstrategie van de christen-democraten in de Europese Unie

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2003
Authors Steven Van Hecke

    While Christian Democratic parties in several Western European countries are often said to be in crisis, the European People's Party holds the largest parliamentary group in the European Parliament since 1999. This paradox relies on the specificity of the different 'national' electoral logics on the one hand and the realisation of a long-term 'European' majority strategy on the other hand. The alliance with Conservatives and Conservative parties has to overcome an absolute electoral decline in 'old' EU countries and a relative decline through the accession of 'new' member states without Christian Democratic parties. The EPP majority strategy is realised through various ways: the key position of the transnational party and party group, the role of political leadership, the way of decision making, the co-operation with side-organisations, the problem-solving of ideological conflicts, etc. Our analysis proves how the majority strategy of the European Christian Democrats realises its ultimate 'survival strategy' despite (or thanks to) several nationalparty crises.

Steven Van Hecke

Tevredenheid over het lokaal beleid in Gent

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 2003
Authors Carl Devos, Herwig Reynaert and Dries Verlet

    According to the new public management, the interaction between (local) governments and their citizens should be "client oriented". It is considered crucial for (local) policy-makers that they know how citizens perceive the policy process, that they know if citizens are satisfied with policy outcomes. Our empirical study deals with the satisfaction with global local policy. We examine the main determinants of satisfaction with global local policy. This study is based on a face-to-face survey among citizens entitled to vote in Ghent. More than 1500 respondents, spread over 2 surveys, took part in our research. Attention is also paid to the satisfaction with more specific aspects of local policy. We linked the voter's satisfaction with the global local policy to a wide range of traditional and less traditional independent variables. Finally, we discuss the satisfaction of the electorate of the different political parties.

Carl Devos

Herwig Reynaert

Dries Verlet
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