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Article

Access_open Constitutionalism and the Incompleteness of Democracy: An Iterative Relationship

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 3 2010
Keywords constitutionalism, globalization, democracy, modernity, postnational
Authors Neil Walker
AbstractAuthor's information

    The complexity of the relationship between democracy and modern constitutionalism is revealed by treating democracy as an incomplete ideal. This refers both to the empirical incompleteness of democracy as unable to supply its own terms of application – the internal dimension – and to the normative incompleteness of democracy as guide to good government – the external dimension. Constitutionalism is a necessary response to democratic incompleteness – seeking to realize (the internal dimension) and to supplement and qualify democracy (the external dimension). How democratic incompleteness manifests itself, and how constitutionalism responds to incompleteness evolves and alters, revealing the relationship between constitutionalism and democracy as iterative. The paper concentrates on the iteration emerging from the current globalizing wave. The fact that states are no longer the exclusive sites of democratic authority compounds democratic incompleteness and complicates how constitutionalism responds. Nevertheless, the key role of constitutionalism in addressing the double incompleteness of democracy persists under globalization. This continuity reflects how the deep moral order of political modernity, in particular the emphasis on individualism, equality, collective agency and progress, remains constant while its institutional architecture, including the forms of its commitment to democracy, evolves. Constitutionalism, itself both a basic orientation and a set of design principles for that architecture, remains a necessary support for and supplement to democracy. Yet post-national constitutionalism, even more than its state-centred predecessor, remains contingent upon non-democratic considerations, so reinforcing constitutionalism’s normative and sociological vulnerability. This conclusion challenges two opposing understandings of the constitutionalism of the global age – that which indicts global constitutionalism because of its weakened democratic credentials and that which assumes that these weakened democratic credentials pose no problem for post-national constitutionalism, which may instead thrive through a heightened emphasis on non-democratic values.


Neil Walker
Neil Walker is Regius Professor of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations at the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Article

Access_open Is de vrijheid van godsdienst in de moderne multiculturele samenleving nog een hanteerbaar recht?

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2010
Keywords freedom of religion, human rights, human dignity, traditional religion, unequal treatment
Authors Koo van der Wal
AbstractAuthor's information

    There are two fundamental problems with regard to the freedom of religion. The first concerns the content and scope of the right; the second, a possible unequal treatment between population groups. The first problem can only be dealt with by a preliminary analysis of the religious phenomenon, which precedes a legal definition. It turns out that there is a range of different types of religion, with on the one hand traditional forms of religion which are narrowly interwoven with the culture in question (all kinds of ‘cultural’ practices possessing a religious dimension), and on the other forms of religion which loosen to a considerable extent the ties between culture and religion. Evidently, the former types of religion cause problems in modern society. An additional problem is that freedom of religion as a modern basic right rests on a view of human being – including the idea of the inherent dignity and autonomy of the human person – which is at odds with the symbolic universe of traditional religion. The conclusion of the article is that in the modern pluralist society freedom of religion is on its way to becoming, or already has become, an unmanageable right. So the problems arising around this right (including that of unequal treatment) can only be solved in a pragmatic, not really satisfactory way. In that context, modern humanitarian standards should be observed in the implementation of the right of freedom of religion because fundamental human rights are connected with a specific concept of humanity.


Koo van der Wal
Koo van der Wal is emeritus professor of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Constitutionele toetsing in een democratie zonder volk

Een kelseniaanse rechtvaardiging voor het Europees Hof van Justitie

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2010
Keywords Kelsen, Democracy, Legitimacy, European Union, European Court of Justice
Authors Quoc Loc Hong
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article draws on Hans Kelsen’s theory of democracy to argue that, contrary to conventional wisdom, there is nothing fundamentally wrong with the democratic legitimacy of either the European Union (EU) or the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The legitimacy problems from which the EU in general and the ECJ in particular are alleged to suffer seem to result mainly from our rigid adherence to the outdated conception of democracy as popular self-legislation. Because we tend to approach the Union’s political and judicial practice from the perspective of this democracy conception, we are not able to observe what is blindingly obvious, that is, the viability and persistence of both this mega-leviathan and the highest court thereof. It is, therefore, imperative that we modernize and adjust our conception of democracy in order to comprehend the new reality to which these bodies have given rise, rather than to call for ‘reforms’ in a futile attempt to bring this reality into accordance with our ancient preconceptions about what democratic governance ought to be. Kelsen is the democratic theorist whose work has enabled us to venture into that direction.


Quoc Loc Hong
Quoc Loc Hong was a FWO Postdoctoral Fellow from 2007 to 2009 at the University of Antwerp. He is currently an independent researcher.
Article

Access_open De droom van Beccaria

Over het strafrecht en de nodale veiligheidszorg

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2010
Keywords Beccaria, criminal law, nodal governance, social contract
Authors Klaas Rozemond
AbstractAuthor's information

    Les Johnston and Clifford Shearing argue in their book, Governing Security, that the state has lost its monopoly on the governance of security. Private security arrangements have formed a networked governance of security in which the criminal law of the state is just one of the many knots or ‘nodes’ of the security network. Johnston and Shearing consider On Crimes and Punishment, written by Cesare Beccaria in the 18th century, as the most important statement of the classical security program which has withered away in the networked governance of the risk society. This article critizes the way Johnston and Shearing analyze Beccaria’s social contract theory and it formulates a Beccarian theory of the criminal law and nodal governance which explains the causes of crime and the rise of nodal governance and defends the central role of the state in anchoring security arrangements based on private contracts and property rights.


Klaas Rozemond
Klaas Rozemond is associate professor at the Department of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, VU University Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Paul Scholten en Herman Dooyeweerd: het gesprek dat nooit plaatsvond

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2010
Keywords Scholten, Dooyeweerd, legal principles, legal reasoning, religion
Authors Bas Hengstmengel
AbstractAuthor's information

    The legal scholars Paul Scholten (1875-1946) and Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) had much in common. The most significant agreement is their emphasis on the influence of a (religious) worldview on legal scholarship and practice. Unfortunately, they never met to discuss the similarities and differences of their jurisprudential ideas. In this article I try to reconstruct this conversation which never took place. Scholten’s legal thought is specifically oriented to the practice and difficulties of judging. Dooyeweerd above all was a philosopher whose specific philosophy of the modal aspects of reality is the basis for his thinking about the law. Both scholars emphasized the importance of legal principles. They also identified several fundamental legal categories and concepts. However, their methodology is different. The way religion and morality influence their legal thought is also different. A discussion of the contemporary relevance of their work completes the paper.


Bas Hengstmengel
Bas Hengstmengel is a PhD-candidate at Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam. He writes a dissertation on procedural justice.
Article

Access_open ‘Wat is waarheid?’ De rol van deskundigen bij waarheidsvinding in de strafrechtspraak

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2010
Keywords Legitimation durch Verfahren, criminal law, expert-witnesses, truth, reliability of evidence
Authors Anne Ruth Mackor
AbstractAuthor's information

    Huls has argued that the idea that judges are truth-finders is misleading. In the first part of the paper I put his claim to the test. Against Huls I argue that the aim of procedures in criminal lawsuits is not only to guarantee binding decisions but also to help to find the truth. In the second part of the paper I investigate the role expert-witnesses play in truth-finding. Cleiren and Loth have argued that experts fail to understand the differences between legal and scientific ways of truth-finding. It turns out that Cleiren does not offer an argument for her claim and that Loth’s claim fails too, since it confuses coherence as truth and coherence as epistemic justification. I conclude that legal scholars, rather than experts, fail to understand the nature of legal and scientific truth-finding.


Anne Ruth Mackor
Anne Ruth Mackor is professor of professional ethics, in particular of the legal professions, at the Faculty of Law of Groningen, and Socrates professor of professional ethics at the Faculties of Philosophy and Theology of Groningen.
Article

Women Can and Should Have It Both Ways

Finding a Balance Between the EU’s New Law on Maternity Leave and American Maternity Provisions

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords European Union, maternity leave, family, work
Authors Amy Lai
AbstractAuthor's information

    This paper critiques the EU’s new la won maternity leave by contextualizing it in the historical development of EU law as well as in feminist criticism. It arguaes in favour of generous paid maternity leave provisions based on economic and psychological arguments. It then examines the likely impact of an extension of maternity leave a the EU level on member states. Finally, it studies the Family and Medical Leave Act of the United States to reveal the insufficiencyof its maternity leave provisions, especially when compared to the generous provisions in current EU law. This paper arrives at the conclusion that new mothers, be they Europeans or Americans, can and should be able to reconcile their wort and family obligations.


Amy Lai
Amy Lai is a student at Boston College Law School and holds a Ph.D. from Cambridge. The author would like to express her gratitude to Professor Sophie Robin-Olivier for her comments on the draft.
Article

Karlsruhe v. Lisbon

An Overture to a Constitutional Dialogue from an Estonian Perspective

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords constitutional dialogue, Karlsruhe decision, supranationalism
Authors Tanel Kerikmae and Katrin Nyman-Metcalf
Abstract

    The article uses the 2009 decision of the German Constitutional Court on the Lisbon Treaty as a basis for an analysis of the relationship between EU law and Member State law, especially Member State constitutions. The authors argue that an uncritical openness of Member States to supremacy of EU law and the interpretations made of it by the European Court of Justice is not necessary but rather an analytical attitude towards the development of EU with active legal argumentation to protect the rule of law – a deliberative supranationalism. A constitutional dialogue between Member States and the EU is the best protection and promoter of rule of law. The constitutional discussions in Estonia are used as an illustration of the balancing of national constitutional principles and supremacy or EU law.


Tanel Kerikmae

Katrin Nyman-Metcalf

    Contemporary literature on the use of force has been saturated with arguments and counter arguments relating to the extant regime of the use of force as it should relate to non-state actors. The discussions have however proceeded on the assumption that the problem of the unregulated use of force by non-state entities is limited to group of persons – unorganised non-state actors – pursuing legitimate or non-legitimate agenda. The arguments seems to overlook the existence of a group of States (organised non-state actors) – international organisations – which pose even greater threat to the Charter paradigm of the use of force than unorganised non-state actors. This article discusses the Charter regime on the use of force with particular attention to organised non-state actors and the challenges they posed to the prohibition of the use of force.


Amos O. Enabulele
Amos O. Enabulele LL.M, BL is Lecturer at the Department of Jurisprudence & International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin, Nigeria and a Ph.D. candidate at Brunel University, West London.
Article

The Accommodation of Minority Customs in Sweden

The Islamic Law of Inheritance as an Example

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords multiculturalism and law, private international law, Islamic law of inheritance
Authors Dr. Mosa Sayed
AbstractAuthor's information

    Sweden, as well as many of the other member states of the European Union, has transformed into multicultural societies. In these increasingly culturally differentiated societies demands are raised by immigrant groups for the recognition of their cultural identity and uniqueness. Minority customs may in some cases conflict with fundamental values in the state law. In this article the author is elaborating on the Swedish private international law rules and the multicultural dilemma in relation to the Islamic law of inheritance, which is often considered to belong to those areas of the Islamic law that express principles that are incompatible with the core values of Swedish law.


Dr. Mosa Sayed
Mosa Sayed is Doctor of Laws at Faculty of Law, Uppsala University and researcher within the multidisciplinary research programme Impact of Religion: Challenge for Society, Law and Democracy, founded as a Centre of Excellence at Uppsala University.
Article

The Politics of Demand for Law: The Case of Ukraine’s Company Law Reform

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords company law, Ukraine, legislative process, veto players, external pressures
Authors Dr. Rilka Dragneva and Dr. Antoaneta Dimitrova
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article explores the dynamics between external and domestic factors in legal reform in transition countries as demonstrated by the case of Ukrainian company law reform. Contrary to theoretical explanations pointing to the primacy of external supply and incentives, we locate the determinants of legal change firmly in the domestic arena. We conceptualise domestic factors using a political science framework regarding the role of veto players parliamentary factions and related informal business actors. The analysis supports the critical law and development literature in underlying the importance of the demand for law by such players. This demand, however, affects not just the implementation process but is critically expressed in the strategic use of formal legislative reform.


Dr. Rilka Dragneva
Rilka Dragneva is a Senior Lecturer in Law at the School of Law of University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Dr. Antoaneta Dimitrova
Antoaneta Dimitrova is a Senior Lecturer at Institute for Public Administration at Leiden University, The Netherlands.
Article

What Critiques Have Been Made of the Socratic Method in Legal Education?

The Socratic Method in Legal Education: Uses, Abuses and Beyond

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords Socratic method, legal education, learning theory, critical thinking, feminist pedagogy
Authors Christie A. Linskens Christie
AbstractAuthor's information

    Legal education is known for its use of the Socratic method. It appears, however, that the Socratic method may not be just for law students any more: American educators are now considering the method in the teaching of non-law school students. One perceived benefit of teaching by the Socratic method is that a student will learn by critical thinking rather than rote memorization. A major criticism of the method, however, is that a student may suffer low self-esteem from the perception that the method engages in ‘bullying’. The articles discussed in this literature review address the method in learning theory, the method in law school, criticisms of the method and proposals to use the method for non-law students. This article will analyze the Socratic method, the pros and cons of the method and its application outside of the law school.


Christie A. Linskens Christie
Christie A. Linskens Christie is a PhD Student, Urban Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Adjunct Professor at Marquette University Law School and Staff Attorney, Legal Aid Society of Milwaukee, Inc.
Article

The ECJ Ruling in Cartesio and Its Consequences on the Right of Establishment and Corporate Mobility in the European Union

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords Cartesio, right of establishment, Corporate mobility
Authors Prof. dr.sc. Siniša Petrović and Tomislav Jakšić
AbstractAuthor's information

    Before Cartesio, the case law of the European Court of Justice on freedom of establishment mainly considered company immigration situations, i.e. legal entities moving into another Member State. Cartesio is the first major ruling on company emigration since the 1988 decision in Daily Mail. Consequently, much was expected from Cartesio, notably that it would confirm a company’s right to directly invoke its freedom of establishment in emigration scenarios. However, this was not the case. Although Cartesio introduced some new concepts into the freedom of establishment case law like the concept of company conversion, the freedom of establishment actually took a step backward. This effectively resulted in almost complete disregard of the freedom of establishment in emigration situations - unlike in immigration situations. This partial denial of freedom of establishment, one of the fundamental freedoms of Community law, would seem urge the continuation of work on the new 14th Company Law Directive. In light of the current ECJ case law, only a legislative approach would seem suitable to guarantee non-discrimination in the ongoing regulatory competition between Member States which apply the registered seat theory and those which apply the administrative (real) seat theory.


Prof. dr.sc. Siniša Petrović
Prof. dr. sc. Siniša Petrović is a full professor at the Faculty of Law of the University of Zagreb.

Tomislav Jakšić
Tomislav Jakšić is a Junior Researcher at the Faculty of Law of the University of Zagreb.
Article

The Right to Food

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 3-4 2010
Keywords food crisis, right to food
Authors Ying Chen
AbstractAuthor's information

    With the development of society, new agricultural technologies have been widely introduced and effectively applied to agricultural cultivation. Agricultural productive capacity has greatly improved and the world’s food producers are capable of providing all the people on this planet with sufficient food to satisfy everyday dietary needs for a healthy life. Ironically, food insecurity continues to be a critical issue in the contemporary world. More than 923 million people suffer from chronic hunger, malnutrition or related diseases, and this number grows with continually rising food prices. This article responds to the current food insecurity by addressing a new issue: is there any legal basis for both the international community and national governments to protect vulnerable people from hunger and malnutrition?


Ying Chen
S.J.D. Candidate, LL.M., Indiana University School of Law Indianapolis.

    Although ‘Secular Ethics’ maintains that it is possible to be ethical and moral without religion, history and nature testify to the contrary. Even the trend in business ethics is to recognize the need for stable standards when measuring the good; and more and more business professionals argue for benchmarks of ethics per se rooted ultimately in values that stem from genuine religion.


Edward J. Alam
Edward J. Alam is Associate Professor at Notre Dame University, Louaize, Lebanon.
Article

Constitutional Review in the Caribbean

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1-2 2010
Keywords Guyana, electoral reform, constitutional reform, international human rights law, Caribbean
Authors Avril Anande Trotman-Joseph
AbstractAuthor's information

    Guyana, South America, is a former colony of Britain and the only English-speaking country in South America, but has more in common with its English-speaking Caribbean neighbours. Constitutional reform and resulting constitutional amendments were precipitated in 1999-2000 by civil unrest following national elections and dissatisfaction by the major opposition with the outcome of an election characterized by ethnic differences between respective supporters of parties backed by followers of traditionally Indian, African and Amerindian origin. This process was a brokered effort to ameliorate the national dissatisfaction and an opportunity for civil society representatives and political representatives of the unicameral House of Parliament to work together in recommending electoral and constitutional reform. The outcome was the radical reform and modernization of the constitutional entrenchment of the modern concepts of international human rights law. In this regard Guyana is ahead of the other sister nations of the Caribbean, CARICOM grouping in terms of constitutional advancements. However, the political will to realize far-reaching electoral and governance reforms, as well as the effective implementation of the entrenched human rights reforms, still lags behind, despite the amendment of the constitution, the appointment of several commissions and the establishment of a parliamentary oversight committee tasked with continuous constitution review.


Avril Anande Trotman-Joseph
Avril Anande Trotman-Joseph is presently a law partner with the firm of Joseph & Joseph in Saint George’s, Grenada. She is an OAS and UNIFEM Consultant in the Caribbean; she serves on the Board of the Caribbean Institute of Leadership and as Deputy Chairperson of Grenada’s Integrity and Anti Corruption Commission.
Article

Is Compliance with International Humanitarian Law Susceptible to Logical Measurement?

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1-2 2010
Keywords International humanitarian law, interests, States, power
Authors Ilias Bantekas
AbstractAuthor's information

    The application of international humanitarian law by States is necessarily dependent on factors such as “interests” as well as certain “qualities” of States, such as size or wealth. Despite their contractual undertakings, nations fully apply the jus in bello under the terms of a particular formula. This article depicts this formula in a very rudimentary manner, positing that compliance is measureable and corresponds to a number which is derived by adding a State’s interests and qualities.


Ilias Bantekas
Ilias Bantekas is Professor of International Law, Brunel Law School and Head of International Law at Mourgelas & Associates Law Firm.
Article

Good Governance

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1-2 2010
Keywords international cooperation, state administration, substate-level administration, steering non-governmental bodies, principles of Human-Rights-and-Rule-of-Law, democracy structures, procedures and manpower of administration
Authors Prof. Dr. Ulrich Karpen
AbstractAuthor's information

    “Good Governance” is a term used worldwide to measure, analyse and compare, mainly quantitatively and qualitatively, but not exclusively, public governments, for the purpose of qualifying them for international developmental aid, for improving government and administration domestically, etc.
    In Section A the use of the key term is explained more thoroughly; Section B lists goals and effects of governance from the international, supranational (European) and national perspective; Section C contains guidelines for governance as vested in constitution and law and Section D describes the main instruments and tools to work on better governance.


Prof. Dr. Ulrich Karpen
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Karpen, Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg.
Article

Establishing Protection Mechanisms for Bureaucrats

The Case of the Independent Oversight Board of Civil Service of Kosovo

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1-2 2010
Keywords Kosovo Civil Service, Civil service, Oversight Board, law, reform
Authors Dren Doli, Fisnik Korenica and Artan Rogova
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article discusses the position and powers of Kosovo’s Civil Service Oversight Board, mainly from a legal perspective. The article describes the reforms undertaken upon the Board and the civil service in Kosovo, while illustrating the central pillars of concern in regard to both the international presence and domestic institutions in Kosovo. The article then explains the three reforms and reviews each of the main legal changes the Board and the civil system have experienced, respectively. The last section of the article comprises an institutional review of the powers and the position of the current framework on the Civil Service Oversight Board, while allowing a part of the article to question its independence and pluralism. The article culminates with policy suggestions that would make the work of the Board, and the entire civil service, more independent and accountable to its mission.


Dren Doli
Dren Doli is a Senior Research Fellow at the Group for Legal and Political Studies, and a Senior Lecturer on Law Principles at Universum University College, having served earlier as a Senior Legal Executive for Integration to the Kosovo Prime Minister.

Fisnik Korenica
Fisnik Korenica is a Lecturer on the Theory of State and Law at the University of Prishtina, and a Senior Research Fellow at the Group for Legal and Political Studies.

Artan Rogova
Artan Rogova is a Senior Research Fellow at the Group for Legal and Political Studies, as a Lecturer on Economics of European Integration at Universum University College.
Article

Act of Parliament: The Role of Parliament in the Legislative Process

A Commonwealth Perspective

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1-2 2010
Keywords parliament, legislation, pre-legislative scrutiny, supremacy of parliament, delegated legislation, Uganda, legislative process
Authors Denis Kibirige Kawooya
AbstractAuthor's information

    Whereas making law is one of the principal functions of Parliament, Parliament plays a very limited role in the legislative process. In Uganda, like in many commonwealth jurisdictions due to the role the Constitution has given to Parliament, the legislature should take a more active role in the legislative process. The paper examines the legislative authority of Parliament, the concept of Parliamentary supremacy, pre-legislative scrutiny and whether Parliament should be involved in the scrutiny of delegated legislation.


Denis Kibirige Kawooya
Denis Kibirige Kawooya is a Senior State Attorney in the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, Uganda, a member of the Commonwealth Association of Legislative Counsel, Uganda Law Society, East African Law Society and an Advocate of the High Court of Uganda.
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