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Year 2020 x

    Previous work has been undertaken (Green, Neumann, Grey 2018) to consider the development of the Newspace Sector and its impact on space activities in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This previous work noted that although propertisation of space and celestial bodies is prohibited pursuant to the Outer Space Treaty 1967 (UN), orbits within space still remain rivalrous and commercially lucrative. For example, by operating in a LEO environment, a constellation of satellites would prevent other competitors from also operating and providing services within that same orbital plane or orbital shell. A regulatory scheme may be advantageous in mitigating anti-competitive conduct between private enterprises by allowing new entrants to market to gain access to commercially lucrative orbital planes, while ensuring access for government continues for national security and emergency response activities. This paper will consider these issues and explore what a regulatory or licensing scheme would look like for private enterprises operating in LEO and how UNOOSA and the ITU may act as arbiters. This paper will also offer solutions to facilitate a regulatory; or, licensing scheme that prevents anti-competitive conduct.


Thomas Green
Thomas Green, PhD Student, University of Wollongong; tjg171@uowmail.edu.au.

Patrick Neumann
Patrick Neumann, Chief Scientist, Neumann Space Pty Ltd; paddy@neumannspace.com.

Kent Grey
Kent Grey, Partner, Minter Ellison, 25 Grenfell Street, Adelaide 5000 Australia; kent.grey@minterellison.com.

Trevor Sandlin
Trevor Sandlin, Chief Mate AGT, USNS Salvor, United States Merchant Marine; sandlin.trevor@gmail.com.

Thomas Cullum
Thomas Cullum, Engineer, Neumann Space Pty Ltd; tomc@neumannspace.com.

Ilana Pender-Rose
Ilana Pender-Rose; ilanapenderrose@gmail.com.

Robert Mahoney
Robert Mahoney, Founder, Southern Cross Innovations; robert.mahoney24@gmail.com.
Article

Access_open Voters of Populist Parties and Support for Reforms of Representative Democracy in Belgium

Journal Politics of the Low Countries, Issue 3 2020
Keywords Belgian politics, democratic reforms, elections, populist voters, representative democracy
Authors Lisa van Dijk, Thomas Legein, Jean-Benoit Pilet e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    Recently, studies have burgeoned on the link between populism and demands for democratic reforms. In particular, scholars have been debating the link between populist citizens or voters and support for referendums. In this article, we examine voters of populist parties (Vlaams Belang (VB) and Parti du Travail de Belgique-Partij van de Arbeid (PTB-PVDA)) in Belgium in 2019 and we look at their attitudes towards various types of democratic reforms. We find that voters of populist parties differ from the non-populist electorate in their support for different kinds of reforms of representative democracy. Voters of VB and PTB-PVDA have in common stronger demands for limiting politicians’ prerogatives, for introducing binding referendums and for participatory budgeting. While Vlaams Belang voters are not significantly different from the non-populist electorate on advisory referendums, citizens’ forums or technocratic reform, PVDA-PTB voters seem more enthusiastic.


Lisa van Dijk
Lisa van Dijk (corresponding author), KU Leuven.

Thomas Legein
Thomas Legein, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB).

Jean-Benoit Pilet
Jean-Benoit Pilet, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB).

Sofie Marien
Sofie Marien, KU Leuven.

Noten


Thomas Dullinger
Univ.-Ass. Mag. Thomas Dullinger is associated with Institut für Arbeits- und Sozialrecht, Universität Wien.
Article

Gender-Neutral Drafting

A View from Wales

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1 2020
Keywords gender, legislation, English, Welsh, LGBTQIA+
Authors Thomas Glyn Watkin
AbstractAuthor's information

    The gender classification of words in English is different from that in many other languages, including Welsh. The approach in Welsh is more closely aligned to that in languages such as French, Spanish or Italian, but there are also differences. The differences include the manner in which possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives are employed. These differences pose difficulties for bilingual drafting in English and Welsh.
    This article will consider some of those difficulties, their root causes and some possible solutions as well as look at issues that may or may not complicate matters further in the future.


Thomas Glyn Watkin
Queen’s Counsel (honoris causa); Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales; Honorary Professor of Law, Bangor University. First Welsh Legislative Counsel (2007-2010); Professor of Law, Bangor Law School (2004-2007); Professor of Law, Cardiff Law School (2001-2004).
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