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Journal European Journal of Law Reform x Year 2011 x
Article

The Importance of the Symbolic Role of the Head of State

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1 2011
Keywords head of state, monarchy, democracy, symbolic, Sarkozy
Authors David Marrani
AbstractAuthor's information

    Why do we need, in a society that we assume to be democratic, someone that reminds us of the archaic organisation of humanity, someone like a head of state? We know that the ‘powerful’ heads have now been transformed, most of the time, in ‘powerless’ ones, with solely a symbolic role, often not recognised. So why do we need them and how important are they? Because they are part of our archaic memory, images of the father of the primitive hordes, and because they ‘sit’ above us, the symbolic role of the head of state can be read with the glasses of a psychoanalyst and the magnifier of a socio-legal scholar. This paper is a journey in time and space, looking at the move from the sovereign-monarch to the president-monarch, unfolding the question of authority and its link to ‘distance’ but also the connection to ‘the Father’ and the notion of the two bodies.


David Marrani
Dr. David Marrani, Senior Lecturer, University of Essex, School of Law, UK.
Article

Legislative Drafting and Human Rights

The Example of the European Arrest Warrant

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 2 2011
Keywords rule of law, drafting EU legislation, Framework Decision 2002/584 on the European Arrest Warrant
Authors William Robinson
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article considers some of the requirements for good laws, focusing in particular on the drafters’ perspective. It looks first in general terms at the requirements forming part of the rule of law that laws be accessible and predictable. It then examines the drafting of laws in the European Union: how it is done; the concern to make EU laws accessible; and specific features of EU legislative drafting rules and practices, illustrated by reference to Framework Decision 2002/584.


William Robinson
Sir William Dale Visiting Fellow, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London.

    Even amongst those clauses frequently found in commercial contracts in general and sales contracts in particular, agreed sums enjoy exceptional popularity. Now, when I say ‘agreed sum’, of course I do not talk about the purchase price but about clauses that in traditional terminology are called penalty or liquidated damages clauses.


Pascal Hachem
Dr. iur. (University of Basel, Switzerland), ACIArb, Senior Researcher in the Global Sales Law Project at the Chair of Private Law held by Prof. Dr. Ingeborg Schwenzer, LL.M. and Lecturer of Comparative Private Law and International Trade Law at the University of Basel, Switzerland.

    This paper will make the case for more widespread African adherence to the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods, 1980 (“CISG”) on the ground that it represents an effort through the United Nations system to make available harmonised rules on the international sale of goods which are intended to have an international and universal reach. The paper begins with an introduction which briefly examines the origins of CISG and proceeds to discuss the relevance of CISG to Africa. It ends with a recommendation to African States to accede to, or ratify, the Convention.


S.K. Date-Bah
LL.B (Ghana), LL.M (Yale), Ph.D (London School of Economics), Professor of law. Justice at the Supreme Court of Ghana.

    Conflicts of jurisdiction between a state court and an arbitral tribunal occur in two different scenarios: (a) claimant X institutes a court action and the defendant subsequently commences with arbitration or requests to be referred to arbitration (as envisaged by the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards – NYC); and (b) claimant X commences arbitration and the defendant subsequently challenges in a national court. X should be able to seek a stay of the parallel litigation on the ground of the existence of a valid agreement to arbitrate the dispute, but the duty on the part of South African courts to do so is not clearly legislated, nor is it as well-understood as it deserves to be. Various interests have fallen into disharmony in this area of the law.


Christa Roodt
Doctor of Laws (University of Orange Free State), LL.M (University of South Africa), LL.B. (University of Pretoria).

    After their initial introduction in 1936, Incoterms were revised for the first time in 1957 and thereafter in 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990 and 2000. This appears to suggest that, in recent times, Incoterms have been revised at 10-year intervals. This, however, is a false impression. It is merely a coincidence that the last three revisions are separated by two 10-year periods. Indeed, the main purpose of Incoterms is to reflect international commercial practice. Needless to say, commercial practice does not change at a set interval.


Jan Ramberg
Professor Emeritus of the Law Faculty of the University of Stockholm.
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