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    Since 2005 a growing number of states have adopted national space legislation to ensure adherence to international obligations, clarify rights under international space law, and promote regulatory certainty for space activities under their jurisdiction. While a certain degree of similarity is seen in the interpretation of these international obligations, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that diverging interpretations on a national level already exist. The interpretations that are reflected in national space legislation are often contextual and products of national space capabilities and ambitions. As such the Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission on the Fragmentation of International Law regarding competing lex specialis, each with its own purpose and reasoning, will be discussed by analogy to provide insight into the processes and consequences of fragmentation of international law through diverging interpretations. Thereafter, this paper will present a brief comparative study on the scope of various national space legislation. This study will highlight variations in the interpretation of what it means to “carry out a space activity” under Article VI OST. Particular attention will be given to who is defined as carrying out a space activity and what is defined as a space activity. The conclusion will underline a need and urgency for coordination in the interpretation and application of space law, which is both beneficial and necessary to avoid the negative consequences of the fragmentation of international space law.


Vincent Seffinga
Vincent Seffinga, Department of Law, European University Institute, Villa Salviati, Via Bolognese 156, 50139 Florence, Italy.

Mari Eldholm
Mari Eldholm, in private capacity.

Gilles Doucet
Spectrum Space Security Inc.
Article

Big Data Flow from Space to the EU

Open Access and Open Dissemination Policy vs. the Common European Data Space

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2018
Authors Maria Elena De Maestri
Author's information

Maria Elena De Maestri
University of Genoa.

Hamza Hameed
Legal Consultant, International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT).
Article

Access_open Report of the IAA/IISL Scientific-Legal Roundtable

Guadalajara, Mexico, 29th September 2016

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 9 2016
Authors Marc Haese

Marc Haese

Dimitri Linden
University of Leuven, Belgium

Catherine Doldirina
Joint Research Centre, Italy

Jan Wouters
Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium, Jan.Wouters@ ggs.kuleuven.be.

Rik Hansen
Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, KU Leuven, Belgium, Rik.Hansen@ ggs.kuleuven.be.

Anita Rinner
University of Graz, Austria, a.rinner@edu.uni-graz.at.

Prof. Dr. Lesley Jane Smith
Leuphana University of Luneburg/ Weber-Steinhaus & Smith, Bremen, Germany,, ljsmith@barkhof.uni-bremen.de

Rafael Harillo Gomez-Pastrana
Lawyer and Space Consultant, STARDUST CONSULTING

Diego Zannoni
University of Padua, Italy

C. Doldirina
Article

Economic and Political Impacts of National Space Legislation in Europe

Legal Mechanisms for Encouraging Space Commerce

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2009
Authors M. Sánchez Aranzamendi and K.-U. Schrogl

M. Sánchez Aranzamendi

K.-U. Schrogl

C. Doldirina
Article

The Need for a Uniform Law System Protecting Intellectual Property Rights in Outer Space

Private International Law Regarding Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2008
Authors H. van Traa-Engelman

H. van Traa-Engelman

A. Froehlich
Article

Monitoring the Kyoto Protocol: Greenhouse Gases Observation & the Global Forest Carbon Monitoring System

2008 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 47th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Legal Implications of Space Applications for Global Climate Change"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 8 2008
Authors M. Onoda

M. Onoda
Article

Treaty Law in Support of Climate Monitoring

2008 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 47th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Legal Implications of Space Applications for Global Climate Change"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 8 2008
Authors F.G. von der Dunk

F.G. von der Dunk
Article

Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty 'in the European Context'

The 3rd Eilene M. Galloway Symposium On Critical Issues In Space Law in Washington D.C., United States, December 2008: "Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty: Issues and Implementation"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 9 2008
Authors F.G. von der Dunk

F.G. von der Dunk
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