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    The United Nations space treaties establish the basic legal framework governing outer space activities. While it is through national space legislation that the spirit and schemes in these treaties are further instilled into specific entities undertaking space activities, launch services contracts play a notable role in final stage of rendezvous and docking with the legal infrastructure at international level. For example, allocation of risk/liability mechanism in these contracts is deeply influenced by treaty provisions and national legislation. These arrangements seem to be made all the more complicated in the context of international launch projects. Growing demand from the small satellite sector for ride hitching opportunities in space launch begs the question of whether and how the launch service contracts need to be tailored to accommodate industry demand and regulatory needs. This paper purports to examine some of the regulatory issues surrounding risk/liability management under standard and piggyback launch services contracts, which reflect deliberate compliance on micro-level with the international and national legal framework on macro-level.


Kang Duan
China Great Wall Industry Corporation.
Article

A Vital Artery or a Stent Needing Replacement?

A Global Space Governance System without the Outer Space Treaty?

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2018
Authors Ram S. Jakhu and Steven Freeland
AbstractAuthor's information

    The 1967 Outer Space Treaty is the foundational framework of international space law that has succeeded in effectively governing outer space. However, it is becoming increasingly possible that a major space power, or a group of States, may consider withdrawing from the Outer Space Treaty, particularly in view of the current trend towards nationalistic political populism and isolationistic foreign policies to selectively withdraw from certain key international institutions and treaties. The Outer Space Treaty could be one such treaty, especially in relation to the exclusive national exploitation of space-based natural resources by private entities, and threats to national security. Such withdrawals would likely have serious implications for global space governance, which is essentially based on this Treaty. This paper critically addresses some of the most serious legal issues related to the void that such withdrawal might create in the prevailing international governance regime for outer space.


Ram S. Jakhu
Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University, Montreal, Canada,ram.jakhu@mcgill.ca (corresponding author).

Steven Freeland
School of Law, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia, s.freeland@westernsydney.edu.au.

    1. The main question of my research is “who will possess the intellectual property rights of remote sensing images, obtained from observation satellites, analyzed through big data analysis conducted by A.I.”
      In consideration of this theme, I am aiming to organize the following controversial points which may arise from the sale of satellite data:

      1. Intellectual property rights attributed to raw data;

      2. Copyright of the results of A.I. data analysis; and

      3. Rights (copyright and patent rights) of the firms that create the algorithms.

    2. To further examine this issue, I begin by discussing two topics from intellectual property law and international space law perspective:

      1. Points of contention regarding the attribution of copyright for satellite data extracted from observation satellites; and

      2. The idea of “the denial of preferential access right for the remote sensing data of surveyee’s countries” which was provided in the 1986 Remote Sensing Principles.

    3. In addition to the above, I aim to highlight areas that may be problematic in this new era for the space industry, as well as notable points for business players, by superimposing data analytic methodology with a discussion of the rights of A.I. deliverables. The aim of this paper is to integrate a space law issue (rights of remote sensing images) with an intellectual property law issue (with an emphasis on traditional issues as well as A.I. rights).

    4. To conclude, I will highlight certain opinions from a legislative perspective and emphasize the importance of critical importance of strategic contractual coverage of these issues.


Mihoko Shintani
TMI Associates.
Article

Public Procurement Rules, Forms of Financing and Their Impact on Competition in the Space Field

A General Overview with a Focus on the Italian Legislative Framework and Its Practical Implementation

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2018
Authors Marina Gagliardi, Giorgio Garagnani, Nicoletta Bini e.a.
Author's information

Marina Gagliardi
Italian Space Agency.

Giorgio Garagnani
Italian Space Agency.

Nicoletta Bini
Italian Space Agency.

Cristina Marabottini
Italian Space Agency.
Article

New Space Activities and Legislation

A General Overview with a Specific Reference to the Ongoing Debate in Italy

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2017
Authors Marina Gagliardi, Nicoletta Bini, Cristina Marabottini e.a.
Author's information

Marina Gagliardi
Marina Gagliardi, Legal Affairs Unit, Italian Space Agency, Rome, Italy.

Nicoletta Bini
Nicoletta Bini, Legal Affairs Unit, Italian Space Agency, Rome, Italy.

Cristina Marabottini
Cristina Marabottini, Legal Affairs Unit, Italian Space Agency, Rome, Italy.

Gianfranco Gabriele Nucera
Gianfranco Gabriele Nucera, Department of Political Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome.
Article

Legal Loophole or Just a Matter of Interpretation?

On the Outer Space Treaty’s Methodology Test with the Diversification of Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2017
Authors Merve Erdem
Author's information

Merve Erdem
Department of International Law, Ankara University Faculty of Law, Cemal Gürsel Caddesi No: 58, 06590, Cebeci, Ankara, Turkey, erdemm@ankara.edu.tr
Article

The Second African National Space Law

The Nigerian NASRDA Act and the Draft Regulations on Licensing and Supervision

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2016
Authors Frans G. von der Dunk
Author's information

Frans G. von der Dunk
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, College of Law, Space, Cyber and Telecommunications Law Program, Fvonderdunk2@unl.edu.

Kumar Abhijeet
Doctoral Candidate, Institute of Air and Space Law, University of Cologne, Germany

P.J. Blount
University of Mississippi School of Law, United States, pjblount@gmail.com.

Olga Volynskaya
International Law Counsel, Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), Russia, aoerjia88@mail.ru.

Frans G. von der Dunk
University of Nebraska, College of Law, Space and Telecommunications Law Program, Fvonderdunk2@unl.edu.
Article

National Space Legislation for Emerging Space-Capable Nations

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2012
Authors Joyeeta Chatterjee, Christopher Johnson and Aleksandra Puścińska
Author's information

Joyeeta Chatterjee
Space Generation Advisory Council, Canada, joyeeta.chatterjee@mail.mcgill.ca.

Christopher Johnson
Space Generation Advisory Council, United Kingdom and United States of America, johnson.c@gmail.com.

Aleksandra Puścińska
Kings College London, United Kingdom and Poland, apuscinska@gmail.com.

Prof. Dr. Lesley Jane Smith
Leuphana University of Luneburg/ Weber-Steinhaus & Smith, Bremen, Germany,, ljsmith@barkhof.uni-bremen.de
Article

In Search of the Current Legal Status of the Registration of Space Objects

The Current Status of the Rule of Law with Regard to Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2010
Authors S. Aoki

S. Aoki
Article

Economic and Political Impacts of National Space Legislation in Europe

Legal Mechanisms for Encouraging Space Commerce

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2009
Authors M. Sánchez Aranzamendi and K.-U. Schrogl

M. Sánchez Aranzamendi

K.-U. Schrogl

L.J. Smith

C. Doldirina

T. Aganaba
Article

Space for Tourism? Legal Aspects of Private Spaceflight for Tourist Purposes

Legal Aspects of Space Transportation and Launching

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2006
Authors F.G. von der Dunk

F.G. von der Dunk
Article

The Post-Human Era: A Time to Reduce Barriers to Intra-Professional Dialogue and Apply More Effective Policy Response

International Law and Practice of Agreements on Cooperation Regarding Space Activities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2004
Authors L.M. Covert

L.M. Covert
Article

Introduction, Problem and Winning Briefs

11th Manfred Lachs Space Law Moot Court Competition, 2002: Case Concerning International Liability (Utopia v. Friendlistan)

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2002
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