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Article

Space Tourism and Space Law: Approach Based on the Law Applicable to Astronauts

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2020
Keywords astronauts, space tourism, space law
Authors Jonathan Campos Percivalle de Andrade
AbstractAuthor's information

    Although space tourism is still an embryonic activity and has been gradually developing through private companies, it is a subject that soon, contrary to what has been happening, should occupy the great international forums that are dedicated to the space theme, such as the United Nations Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Space (COPUOS). The present work has the objective, from the existing legal regime for astronauts, especially the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts and Restitution of Astronauts and Objects Launched into Cosmic Space of 1968, outlining some rights that may be granted to space tourists recognized either from a specific international convention or from the analogous application of the 1968 Rescue Agreement, which, under the rules of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969, proves to be more difficult in international law to occur. In any case, it seems incontestable, as observed in the 1968 Rescue Agreement, that space tourists be guaranteed the right (and at the same time the duty of States) to be saved, assisted and restored in case of problems in re-entry from the cooperation of the State that carry out these efforts jointly with the company responsible for the flight. Thus, the need to construct a regime for space tourists emerges, especially through an international convention that provides for its minimum rights, as well as the obligations of companies and States.


Jonathan Campos Percivalle de Andrade
Jonathan Campos Percivalle de Andrade, Peruíbe College, Brazil.
Article

Space Heritage: International Legal Aspects of Its Protection

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2020
Keywords space heritage, cultural heritage, UNESCO, space law
Authors Vladimir Savelev and Albert Khayrutdinov
AbstractAuthor's information

    The increasing involvement of States in the process of research and use of outer space, as well as the steady development of technical capabilities of space-faring commercial entities, entails a serious growth in the number of space flights. This may adversely affect the physical integrity and safety of the objects, which can be considered as space heritage for their undoubtful significance in the history of humanity. An international legal regime for a protection of such objects does not exist today. That is why necessity to analyse and summarize possible international legal aspects of the protection of historical and cultural heritage in outer space and on celestial bodies has grown and becomes the purpose of this paper. The proposed thesis will consist of 3 chapters except introduction and conclusion. The first chapter will examine the features of the legal status of ‘space heritage’. The second chapter will refer to existing practice of national initiatives into the preservation of space heritage. Thereby, the most vivid example in the field of State’s practice will be non-binding document, ‘NASA’s Recommendations to Space-Faring Entities: How to Protect and Preserve the Historic and Scientific Value of U.S. Government Lunar Artifacts’, which aims to preserve the U.S. artifacts on lunar surface. Another example is the bill ‘One Small Step to Protect Human Heritage in Space Act’, which aims to protect the historic Apollo 11 landing sites. The last chapter will examine the different paths to establish appropriate protection of space heritage at the international level.


Vladimir Savelev
Vladimir Savelev, Рeoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University).

Albert Khayrutdinov
Albert Khayrutdinov, National University of Science and Technology (MISiS).
Article

Arbitration of Space-Related Disputes

Case Trends and Analysis

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 2020
Keywords arbitration, dispute resolution, space-related disputes, satellites
Authors Vivasvat Dadwal and Madeleine Macdonald
AbstractAuthor's information

    Despite a consistent annual increase in the number of space-related disputes, the distinct role of arbitration in the resolution of these disputes remains understudied. To our knowledge, there exist no consolidated catalogues for publicly-reported space-related disputes that have been resolved through international arbitration. This research begins to fill that gap by cataloguing all publicly-reported space-related disputes that have been resolved through international arbitration to date. Results are categorized and analyzed according to: (i) type and subject matter of dispute submitted to international arbitration, as organized by industry and topic; (ii) kind of disputant currently employing international arbitration, as organized by type and size of actor; (iii) applicable law used in international arbitration; (iv) seat; and (v) arbitral institution administering the dispute. Results shed light on current industry practices and complement existing research on the use of arbitration clauses by companies providing space-related products and services. Scholars, policymakers, and legal practitioners may use the data to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the current dispute-resolution infrastructure and to inform future practices in the resolution of space-related disputes.


Vivasvat Dadwal
Vivasvat Dadwal, King & Spalding LLP.

Madeleine Macdonald
Madeleine Macdonald, Justice Canada.

    The stage has been set for humankind’s return to the Moon. This time, however, the purpose is different as the objective has been set for a permanent presence as opposed to the historic exploratory and scientific missions. A permanent presence may result in an intention that is more than purely scientific and thus conduct different from that of the historical missions. While international space law does in broad terms regulate human conduct on celestial bodies like the Moon, there have been differing interpretations of the types of conduct sanctioned by the law. There are of course also activities that might take place in breach of the law with total disregard of any international order. Irrespective of what may unfold in the future, states and other space actors that intend to participate in any Moon settlement will have to prepare themselves strategically for varying degrees of uncertainty and unfolding futures to ensure a state of situational readiness in the settlement process. This work endeavours to showcase the strength of futures methodologies to establish a range of possible futures that can inform the future status of the legal governance system applicable to the Moon landscape. This in turn can serve as the basis from which strategy can be devised that could contribute to a successful settlement mission irrespective of the unfolding future.


Anton de Waal Alberts
Anton de Waal Alberts, Provincial Legislature, Gauteng Province, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Peter Martinez
Peter Martinez, Secure World Foundation.
Article

Back to the Future: Roman Law and Ownership of Objects Created on Celestial Bodies

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2020
Keywords extraterrestrial settlement, Moon colony, Mars colony, ownership, Roman law, principle of specification
Authors Gabrielle Leterre
AbstractAuthor's information

    This contribution analyses the gap left by Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty in matters involving ownership of objects created on celestial bodies and suggests leveraging the Roman law principle of specification to bridge it. Article VIII provides a clear provision: “ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and their component parts is not affected by their presence in outer space or on a celestial body …”. Ownership of an object created in space is therefore possible as long as its ownership was established on Earth. Unfortunately, it leaves open the crucial question for space activities of ownership of objects made of local resources like lunar soil, which have legally no owner. In this case, the specification principle, which has broad application through most national (terrestrial) legal orders, can provide a regime of ownership by stating that created objects belong to the creator when created out of another’s article.


Gabrielle Leterre
Gabrielle Leterre, University of Luxembourg with the support of the Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR).
Article

Charting a Human Rights Framework for Outer Space Settlements

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2020
Keywords rule of law, human rights, governance, sustainability, space law
Authors Jonathan Lim
AbstractAuthor's information

    The advancing commercialization and democratization of access to space requires a reconceptualization of the foundational principles and values offered by international human rights law (IHRL) to the specific technical, physiological, and legal challenges of outer space. The notion of human rights seeks to establish and safeguard the dignity and value of every human being – it is inherent, broad, and aims to promote tolerance, equality and respect in reducing conflict across diverse and isolated human communities. Technological advancements have given rise to novel and unanticipated human rights concerns in an era where the development of the law lags behind technology. Human rights offer a multitude of benefits conducive to the advancement of prolonged human habitation and activities in outer space. Determining what novel fundamental human rights are required in the context of space requires and understanding premised upon human dignity, respect, and fairness – as underpinned by their relation to human health, safety, wellbeing, and dignity.


Jonathan Lim
Jonathan Lim, Jus Ad Astra.

    There is currently a gap in space law that has had a detrimental effect on private activity in outer space. Article II of the Outer Space Treaty prohibits appropriation. The Moon Treaty includes a process for overriding that prohibition (an implementation agreement (IA) under Article 11), but most countries have not adopted it because it uses the term “Common Heritage of Mankind”. But the CHM has no independent legal meaning; it is whatever the implementation agreement says it is. Both the ban on appropriation and the concerns about the CHM are addressed by the Model Implementation Agreement. Without an IA, everyone fears the worst. But if the specific language of an IA is agreed to beforehand, then countries could adopt the Moon Treaty while being assured that they are protecting their national interests.


Dennis O’Brien
Dennis O’Brien, President, The Space Treaty Project, Ukiah, CA/USA; email: dennisobrien@spacetreaty.org.

    The planned creation of colonies on said celestial bodies implies the establishment of permanent human communities on them as well as the creation of permanent structures on (or below) their surface. Obviously, this will be a new phase in the context of space use and exploration. Although, in the light of international law and space law, there can be no colonies (in the traditional sense) in outer space, plans for inhabiting the Moon or Mars can be legally justified in the context of the freedom of exploration and use of outer space. However, the spirit and the provisions of the space treaties in force do not seem able to provide a robust legal framework for the creation of such “space communities”. Consequently, the adoption of a specific, ad hoc legal framework could substantially facilitate the functioning of permanent space settlements. Νo one, however, can rule out the prospect of these newly founded communities opting for an independent and autonomous course through the adoption of their own laws.


George (Georgios) D. Kyriakopoulos
George (Georgios) D. Kyriakopoulos is assistant Professor of International Law at the School of Law, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

    This paper attempts to analyse how the law applicable to property rights over various things in outer space should be determined considering the framework of ‘jurisdiction and control’ provided by international law in the age of settling on the Moon and Mars. This thought experiment reveals current uncertainty and the need to embrace private interests in space law.


Fumiko Masuda
Fumiko Masuda, Okayama University.
Article

‘For All Moonkind’

Legal Issues of Human Settlements on the Moon: Jurisdiction, Freedom and Inclusiveness

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2020
Keywords settlements, moon, jurisdiction, freedom, inclusiveness
Authors Frans G. von der Dunk
AbstractAuthor's information

    After a long period of subdued interests in the Earth’s single celestial companion, plans to send humankind back to the Moon are hatched in abundance again, and one major difference is that this time many of those plans focus on remaining there and ultimately build semi-permanent or even permanent habitats. This obviously raises a number of issues that the short visits to the Moon by humankind so far, manned as well as unmanned, did not raise. Most fundamentally, the absence of exercise of jurisdiction on a territorial basis (as per Article II of the Outer Space Treaty) may no longer be sufficient to guarantee the baseline freedom of exploration and use (as per Article I of the Outer Space Treaty). Questions now arise as to how far the quasi-territorial jurisdiction over registered space objects (as per Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty) can continue to exclude access to such space objects once transformed to or included in permanent habitats on the Moon in spite of the requisite free access to all areas as well as all stations and installations there (as per Articles I and XII of the Outer Space Treaty) and the similarly foundational understanding that activities on the Moon should be for the benefit and in the interests of all countries (as per Article I of the Outer Space Treaty). At what point would (hu)mankind settling on the Moon effectively become ‘Moonkind’, and what changes would, or should, that give rise to? These are the overarching questions the present paper will tackle.


Frans G. von der Dunk
Frans G. von der Dunk, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, College of Law, Space, Cyber and Telecommunications Law Program. No affiliation whatsoever exists between the author and the organization ‘For All Moonkind’; this paper does in no way represent or reflect the aims or opinions of that organization; and neither the title nor the contents of the paper are in any way intended to serve as endorsements of, interference with or otherwise result in harm to the mission of that organization.
Article

Developing and Managing Moon and Mars Settlements in Accordance with International Space Law

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 2020
Keywords Artemis Accords, Moon village, Mars city, International Space Station, adaptive governance, space law
Authors Antonino Salmeri
AbstractAuthor's information

    Moving from the premise that future Moon and Mars settlements shall not take place in a lawless space, this paper addresses the question of how to develop and manage them in accordance with international space law. To this end, it conducts a systematic analysis of the Outer Space Treaty (OST), with the goal of assessing the scope of the freedom to use celestial bodies under international space law. Based on this analysis, and building on the successful experience of the International Space Station, the paper proposes the development of open international settlements made of shared modular facilities. In accordance with the principles of adaptive governance and subsidiarity, the paper argues that the regulation of such settlements should be based on a multi-level framework integrating international recommendations and bilateral arrangements. Under the proposed governance scheme, international recommendations should provide a general framework enabling the development of the settlement, while leaving its management to the mutual agreement of the parties.


Antonino Salmeri
Antonino Salmeri, University of Luxembourg. Doctoral Researcher in Space Law at the University of Luxembourg, under the supervision of Prof. Mahulena Hofmann and with the support of the Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR) (PRIDE17/12251371). Email: antonino.salmeri@uni.lu.
Article

Data Law Aspects of Commercial Satellite Remote Sensing: New Challenges for the New Opportunities

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2020
Keywords commercial satellite remote sensing, satellite data, personal data law, platform
Authors Souichirou Kozuka and Mayu Terada
AbstractAuthor's information

    As the commercial satellite remote sensing has grown to bear the typical features of data industry, the relevance of data law to this industry sector has become apparent. However, the data law differs significantly from one jurisdiction to another. The difference is especially big with regard to the regulation on profiling. Given such feature of data law, it should be crucial that the data law does not undermine the internationally recognised principle of the freedom of remote sensing activities, pronounced in the United Nations Principles of Satellite Remote Sensing. It is the cause of difficulties that the commercial satellite remote sensing faces, because the satellite data most likely threatens the personal privacy when used as part of the “big data” and identifies a person through profiling. One possible solution may be to interpret and implement the data law in a manner that least compromises the principles on satellite remote sensing developed by the space law. Another, more practical solution is to develop private arrangements, requiring the data provider to guarantee compliance with the relevant data law, as well as indicating the standardised conditions for trade in data on the platform. Lawyers should find the way to respect both the space law and data law and ensure that the “free flow of data with trust” is realised for satellite data.


Souichirou Kozuka
Souichirou Kozuka, Faculty of law, Gakushuin University.

Mayu Terada
Mayu Terada, Department of Politics and International Studies, International Christian University.

    Remote sensing satellites are applying in different fields for a long time. The last two decades have shown a growing trend towards an application of the remote sensing results in the litigation. In territorial, maritime and other disputes parties start using images acquired by remote sensing satellite as an evidence. Unfortunately, not all international judicial institutions take the remote sensing results into account in its decisions. One of the main obstacles is probability of providing falsified information by the numerous service providers in the remote sensing area. On the one hand remote sensing technologies are available to everyone, on the other hand, quality of such images or credibility can be challenged by the disputing party or by the Court itself. To resolve this problem a special universal independent organization-provider of the “pure data” can be created. Also, international space law is silent about possible ways how to share of the remote sensing data or whether it is necessary to establish a special fund. By contrast, States have already started to make governmental funds of remote sensing results at the national level. This paper attempts to suggest the best way of the consolidating results which have been made by the governmental, international non- and intergovernmental organizations for creating the world fund of remote sensing data. The article consists of 3 parts: analysis of the case study, forms of international cooperation of the States and organizations on the sharing/buying of the remote sensing date and international legal aspects of this issue.


Irina Chernykh
Irina Chernykh, Department of International Law, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia RUDN University.

    Earth Observation (EO) data products are the result of significant financial investments, resources and time, as well as the outcome of complex activities operated by a plethora of actors that follow different interests. The high “cost factor” of establishing and maintaining a space remote sensing system has led satellite operators to distribute data on a commercial basis, becoming a profitable industry. Private data owners aim to safeguard their profit interests implementing different kinds of “protection” on data products by putting a higher burden of cost on the users. Primary areas of investigation regarding the protection of generated data are data access policies, the articulate terms and conditions as well as restrictions of supply and use of data under which the operator is licensed, and the applicable Intellectual Property (IP) law regime. In the European context of copyright law, a step further is accomplished through the sui generis right for database (Database Directive 96/9/EC). The inconsistencies among the different practices of EO data generators concerning access policy and the applicable legal frameworks of IP rights leads to a lack of uniformity, a high level of vagueness and affect the legal interoperability of data. As a result of the fast-moving changes in the EO data supply sector, a comprehensive legal framework is highly requested. This paper will address the priorities which should be undertaken in its delineation. Among those, the rationalization of data access and the choice of open data access for applications beneficial to the society (e.g., climate protection) will be used as guiding principles.


Sara Dalledonne
Sara Dalledonne, McGill University.
Article

The 1986 United Nations Principles on Remote Sensing Dealing with the Dual-Use Nature of Space Imagery

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 2020
Keywords remote sensing principles, international space law, national space law, data access, dissemination, dual-use, national interests
Authors Anne-Sophie Martin
AbstractAuthor's information

    The 1986 United Nations Principles on Remote Sensing represent a fundamental tool within the international legal regime governing space activities. Indeed, they provide a set of non-binding provisions to guide States willing to conduct remote sensing activities. The paper considers these Principles in light of the dual-use nature of remote sensing technology and products, as well as given the “democratisation” of the use of Earth observation data. Nowadays, remote sensing satellites are operated in many civil, commercial and military applications. In this context, it is necessary to examine the scope of the Principles in order to figure out whether the current legal framework is appropriate, in particular given the dual-use nature of satellite imagery. In addition, some legal issues arise with regard to access to and processing of data which are generated by the private sector for governmental and military uses. In fact, it is now possible to extract military information from commercial and civil Earth observation programmes. So far, the Principles have continued to prove their value and usefulness. However, they do not have been reviewed, especially as regards the technological development of space systems and the evolution of data distribution. Lastly, the paper aims to analyse the Principles by taking into account the rule of access to EO data without discrimination but nevertheless limited for national security reasons.


Anne-Sophie Martin
Dr. Anne-Sophie Martin, Department of Political Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, RM (Italy) martin.annesophie@yahoo.fr.
Article

GNSS Jamming and Spoofing under National and International Law

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2020
Keywords jamming, spoofing, international law, GNSS, electronic warfare
Authors Ingo Baumann and Erik Pellander
AbstractAuthor's information

    Jamming and spoofing can pose significant threats to space-based assets and the services provided by them. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are specifically vulnerable in this respect, considering the very low power of their signals and services. Numerous incidents of GNSS jamming and spoofing have already been reported. Cases of jamming are often not intentional and regularly have only short-term and geographically limited impacts. However, there are also intentional cases of jamming and spoofing is intentional by default. Due to their importance for military operations, for critical national infrastructure and key economic sectors, GNSS constitute primary targets of intentional jamming and spoofing. The paper analyses remedies in response to jamming and spoofing under international law as well as aspects of national law in relation to jamming and spoofing of GNSS signals.


Ingo Baumann
Dr. Ingo Baumann, BHO Legal, Hohenstaufenring 29-37, 50674 Cologne, Germany; ingo.baumann@bho-legal.com.

Erik Pellander
Erik Pellander, BHO Legal, Hohenstaufenring 29-37, 50674 Cologne, Germany; erik.pellander@bho-legal.com.
Article

When Cyber Activities Are Space Activities

Definitions Are Key

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 4 2020
Keywords cyber activities, space activities, non-authorized cyber activities, hacking, jamming, spoofing, interference, cyber attack, launch and operation of space objects, remote sensing, satellite communications, satellite navigation
Authors Stefan A. Kaiser
AbstractAuthor's information

    Cyber space is not Outer Space and cyber activities are different to space activities. But where are the dividing lines? Space law applies to cyber activities when they are space activities. This leads to the question how we define space activities in the meaning of the Outer Space Treaty. With increasingly refined space applications, including satellite communication, remote sensing and navigation and networked environments that span from the Earth into Outer Space, space activities need to be defined more precisely. The other term that needs to be defined are cyber activities. They depend on network connectivity and this is the possible connecting point with space activities. However, in a computer networked environment, not every signal that traverses through Outer Space becomes a space activity. Based on the definition of both, space and cyber activities, this article attempts to delineate their intersection for a practicable understanding about when a cyber activity is a space activity. Following this approach, additional terms and concepts in connection with unauthorized cyber activities need to be more precisely distinguished, including jamming, spoofing, interference and attack. More precise definitions are key to the understanding of the concepts and the linkage between cyber and space activities.


Stefan A. Kaiser
LLM (McGill). Copyright 2020 by Stefan A. Kaiser. Published by Eleven International Publishing, with permission. This paper represents the author’s personal opinion and shall not be attributed to any organization with which he is affiliated.
Article

Domestic Legislation and Challenges Related to Outer Space Laws in Pakistan

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2020
Keywords lawmaking process, treaty implementation, national space policy, civil space agency, national space regime, Pakistan space program
Authors Shakeel Ahmad
AbstractAuthor's information

    In Pakistan, there exists valuable technical and entrepreneurial capability that could be used to take full advantage of space benefits for national economic development. However, the country has not yet become a full spacefaring nation as compared to some other States. At national level, there is a strong realization to uplift national space program and many initiatives are being taken. However, lack of political will, interest in space related public policies are the main hindrances to formulate national space laws. The existing general national laws of Pakistan are somewhat relevant to outer space exploration and use, however, lack in full and systematic support of new developments as compared to various spacefaring nations. These are the challenges that must be addressed by Pakistan in order to legislate and to revisit its present structure, both legislative and decision-making, for outer space activities. This paper critically analyzes the domestic legislative hurdles and challenges with a view of recommending the adoption of relevant national laws and regulations in order to develop and sustain a full space economy as well as to implement Pakistan’s international obligations, in line with some other States.


Shakeel Ahmad
Shakeel Ahmad, Erin J.C. Arsenault Research Fellow, Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University; email: shakeel.ahmad@mcgill.ca. Author has also served as a focal person for Centre of International Law at NDU, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Article

The Regional Preference from a Space Law and Policy Perspective and the European Intergovernmental Organisation as a Potential Model for the Middle East

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 2020
Keywords regional preference, procurement, European perspective, Middle East, space industry
Authors Annette Froehlich and Claudiu Mihai Tăiatu
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article aims to provide the European perspective, highlighting the European Space Agency (ESA) procurement framework for regional industrial development as a potential model for the Middle East. Space activities are increasing across the Middle East and many of these countries are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This means that they must abide by WTO trade principles including competition rules. However, Middle East countries, especially Gulf countries, have developed national procurement frameworks applicable to the oil and gas industry to protect national industry participation and promote local employment. Similar rules of procurement could be proposed for the space industry in order to develop and secure the space industry in the Middle East region. To balance the criteria of regional preference and WTO competition rules, ESA’s industrial space policy could serve as a model for the Middle East.


Annette Froehlich
Dr. Annette Froehlich, LL.M., MAS, European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), Schwarzenbergplatz 6, Vienna, Austria; annette.froehlich@espi.or.at; German Aerospace Center (DLR); SpaceLab, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town.

Claudiu Mihai Tăiatu
Claudiu Mihai Tăiatu, LL.M., European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), Schwarzenbergplatz 6, Vienna, Austria; claudiu.taiatu@community.isunet.edu.

    This paper studies how a new regional approach may enhance legislating or implementing national space laws and regulations through the “National Space Legislation Initiative (NSLI),” which has been implemented under the framework of the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF). APRSAF was established in 1993 and has been enhancing space activities and international cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. The NSLI is a new APRSAF initiative launched in 2019 with a view to effectively studying the status of national space laws in the Asia-Pacific region. It aims to promote information sharing and mutual learning on the practices and examples of national space laws in the Asia- Pacific region. It also aims to enhance the capacity of drafting and implementing national space laws in the Asia-Pacific countries in accordance with international norms, including especially established international law rules. This paper first examines the current situations concerning national space law developments in the Asia-Pacific region and analyses how the NSLI can advance it within the APRSAF framework. In addition to analyzing the NSLI's study reports, the significance and implications of this Initiative will also be stated for the reference and future partnership in other countries and regions.


Ikuko Kuriyama
Ikuko Kuriyama, International Relations and Research Department, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Koichi Kikuchi
Koichi Kikuchi, Legal and Compliance Division, General Affairs Department, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Takashi Iwai
Takashi Iwai, Legal and Compliance Division, General Affairs Department, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Yoko Kagiwada
Yoko Kagiwada, International Affairs Division, International Relations and Research Department, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.
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