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Petra Lea Láncos
Researcher, Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung, Speyer; associate professor, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest.
Article

Fiscal Equalization among the Hungarian Local Governments – Autonomy v. Equity

Decision No. 3383/2018. (XII. 14.) AB of the Constitutional Court of Hungary

Journal Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law, Issue 1 2019
Keywords European Charter of Local Self-Government, financial resources of local authorities, fiscal equalization, solidarity levy, Constitutional Court of Hungary
Authors Gábor Kecső
AbstractAuthor's information

    The 2017 budget of Hungary contains a regime on fiscal equalization among local governments that distracts funds from the municipalities with relatively high taxing power within the country. The respective norms were reviewed by the Constitutional Court from the perspective of international law, since Hungary is one of the member parties to the European Charter of Local Self-Government. This note highlights the essence of the abovementioned decision and discusses some underlying issues of allocating public tasks and funds between the governmental layers in a unitary country where the per capita revenue of local taxes is very divergent.


Gábor Kecső
Senior lecturer, ELTE Law School, Budapest; counselor, Constitutional Court of Hungary.
Article

Defining the Role of the Aarhus Convention as Part of National, International and EU Law

Conclusions of a Case-Law Analysis

Journal Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law, Issue 1 2019
Keywords Aarhus Convention, principle of public participation, protection of the environment, environmental issues before national (constitutional) courts, direct applicability
Authors Ágnes Váradi
AbstractAuthor's information

    As a basic point of reference in international law the Aarhus Convention has a considerable impact on the framework of public participation in environmental matters. The fact that the Convention forms part of national legal orders of EU Member States both as part of international and EU law, the proper enforcement of its provisions makes it inevitable to draw up certain principles of interpretation. The current paper aims to analyze how the Aarhus Convention appears at the level of legal argumentation in the case-law of the CJEU and selected national constitutional courts or high courts of EU Member States, namely, Germany, France and Hungary. Those decisions are examined that refer directly and explicitly to the Aarhus Convention. The case-law analysis is completed by the reference to the relevant secondary literature. The findings can provide a synthesis about the role of the Aarhus Convention, thematic milestones can be drawn up concerning the interpretation of the obligations stemming from the Convention and they can give useful insights into the relationship of national laws, EU law and international law. Meanwhile, they contribute to the analysis of the role of civil participation in the protection of the environment. This way, the conclusions can support the emergence of a (more) general approach in EU Member States as far as public participation in environmental matters is concerned.


Ágnes Váradi
Research fellow, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Social Sciences, Institute for Legal Studies.
Article

“Land of Confusion”

Social (Fundamental) Rights and the Provisions of the Fundamental Law in Light of the Practice of the Constitutional Court of Hungary

Journal Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law, Issue 1 2019
Keywords Constitutional Court of Hungary, social rights as fundamental rights, right to social security, state goals, social security system of Hungary
Authors István Hoffman
AbstractAuthor's information

    Modern welfare democracies developed different approaches to social rights. This paper briefly reviews the different models for the institutionalization of social rights as fundamental rights in modern democracies. In Hungary, the approach to social security has been significantly transformed by the Fundamental Law. For this reason, the paper reviews the approach of the Hungarian constitutional system to the right to social security between 1989 and 2011 and introduces the current position of social rights in the Hungarian legal system. This is done through and assessment of the provisions of the Fundamental Law and the current case-law of the Constitutional Court of Hungary.


István Hoffman
Professor of law, ELTE Law School, Budapest.

János Martonyi
Professor emeritus, University of Szeged; former Minister of Foreign Affairs (1998-2002 and 2010-2014).
Article

How Not to Build a Monetary Union?

The Structural Weaknesses of the EMU in the Light of the 2008 Crisis and the Institutional Reforms for Their Correction

Journal Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law, Issue 1 2018
Authors György Marinkás
Author's information

György Marinkás
Assistant professor, University of Miskolc.

Veronika Kéri
PhD student, Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Law.

Zoltán Pozsár-Szentmiklósy
Assistant Professor, Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Law.

Viktor Rák
Legal advisor of the Hungarian National Chamber of Civil Law Notaries.

Tamás Balogh
Legal advisor of the Hungarian National Chamber of Civil Law Notaries.

    The Lisbon Treaty introduced the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI), a brand new tool of transnational participatory democracy aiming to bring Europe closer to the people. Five years after the first ECI was lodged, we have yet to see an ECI that would pass the full procedure and end up as a proposal for a legal act. The European Commission (hereinafter: Commission) refused to register almost one third of the initiatives lodged on the basis that they fall manifestly outside the framework of the Commission’s powers to submit a proposal for a legal act. The organizers of the refused Minority SafePack ECI challenged the Commission’s decision before the Court of Justice of the European Union. The General Court approved the claims of the organizers of an ECI for the first time in this case. The General Court’s findings with regard to the Commission’s duty to give proper reasoning with respect to the refusal of an ECI may be a small but important step in achieving the goals of the ECI.
    In July 2013 the Citizens Committee of the ‘Minority SafePack – one million signatures for diversity in Europe’ European Citizens’ Initiative (MSPI) submitted its proposal to the European Commission. The aim of the proposal was to call upon the EU to improve the protection of persons belonging to national and linguistic minorities and strengthen cultural and linguistic diversity in the Union. The European Commission refused to register the initiative by its Decision C(2013) 5969 final of September 13, 2013 (hereinafter: the contested decision) on the grounds that it manifestly fell outside the powers of the Commission to submit a proposal for the adoption of a legal act of the European Union for the purpose of implementing the Treaties of the European Union (hereinafter: Treaties). As a result, the organizers could not even start collecting signatures for the MSPI. In November 2013, the decision of the Commission was brought before the General Court. The General Court with its judgment on February 3, 2017 approved the claims of the applicants and annulled the contested decision (hereinafter: Judgement). This was the first time the claims of the organizers of an ECI were approved by the Court of Justice of the European Union in relation to the rejection of the Commission’s decision.


Balázs Tárnok
PhD researcher at Pázmány Péter Catholic University Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Budapest.

Áron Péter Balogh
PhD student, University of Debrecen Marton Géza Doctoral School of Legal Studies.

Péter Smuk
Associate professor, Department of Constitutional Law and Political Science; Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Győr.

Marcel Szabó
Doctor of Philosophy in Legal and Political Sciences, Ombudsman for Future Generations and Deputy Commissioner for Fundamental Rights of Hungary; Chair of the Network of Institutions for Future Generations; Head of the European Law Department at the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences of Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest; former Agent of Hungary in the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros case.

Henriett Rab
Associate professor, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Law, Debrecen.

András Koltay
Associate professor, Pázmány Péter Catholic University.
Article

Lessons of Sevso Case

Restitution Challenges of the Illegally Exported Cultural Property

Journal Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law, Issue 1 2016
Authors Vanda Vadász
Author's information

Vanda Vadász
Junior research fellow, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Social Sciences, Budapest.

Rino Büchel
Chief of Section Protection of Cultural Property, Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), Rino.

Péter Darák
President of the Curia of Hungary.

Veronika Szeghalmi
Media specialist, Institute for Media Studies of the Media Council of the National Media and Infocommunications Authority.

Lucrezia Palandri
Ph.D. in Comparative Law at the University of Florence, Italy.

William R. Slomanson
Professor of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law (USA); Visiting Professor, Pristina University (Kosovo).
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