Search result: 19 articles

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Year 2017 x
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 14 September 2017, case C-168/16 and C-169/16 (Ryanair), Private international law

Sandra Nogueira and Others – v – Crewlink Ireland Ltd and Miguel José Moreno Osacar – v – Ryanair Designated Activity Company

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 4 2017
Keywords Private international law
Abstract

    When determining the place from which airline cabin crewmembers habitually carry out their work, the concept of ‘home base’ is a significant indicator.

Editorial

Access_open Introduction

Journal Erasmus Law Review, Issue 3 2017
Authors Kristin Henrard
Author's information

Kristin Henrard
Kristin Henrard is Professor of fundamental rights and minorities at the Erasmus School of Law, more particularly the Department of International and EU Law. She teaches courses on advanced public international law, international criminal law, human rights and on minorities and fundamental rights.
Article

Access_open An Empirical Study of the Voting Pattern of Judges of the International Court of Justice (2005-2016)

Journal Erasmus Law Review, Issue 3 2017
Keywords voting pattern, ICJ judges, empirical research
Authors Xuechan Ma and Shuai Guo
AbstractAuthor's information

    The Statute of the International Court of Justice stipulates that judges shall exercise their powers impartially. We question the practicability of this statement and examine whether the voting pattern of the judges are biased. In this light, empirical research is conducted on cases adjudicated from 2005 to 2016. We find strong evidence that (1) judges favour their home States or appointing States; and (2) judges favour States that speak same majority language with their home States.


Xuechan Ma
Xuechan Ma, Ph.D. candidate at Leiden University, LL.M. and LL.B. at Peking University. Email address: x.ma@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Shuai Guo
Shuai Guo, Ph.D. candidate at Leiden University, LL.M. and LL.B. at China University of Political Science and Law. Email address: s.guo@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Article

ODR4Refugees through a Smartphone App

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 1 2017
Keywords refugees, ODR, mediation, smartphone, disputes
Authors Petros Zourdoumis
AbstractAuthor's information

    For the past two years we have been monitoring in Greece several refugee related disputes such as disputes between refugees, intercultural disputes, disputes between refugees and the local community and disputes between refugees and the camp administration. We have also noticed that almost all refugees had smartphones as they were easy to carry with them and allow them to stay connected with those left behind or been relocated. Therefore in order to offer dispute resolution services we had to address two main issues: mobility & speed. We thought that technology could fit perfectly in this context. So, we decided, to develop a smartphone application for refugees that could create the environment for ODR. The App will not only resolve disputes online but try to prevent disputes or their escalation. Some of its innovative features will be personalized texts, language selection, disputes menu, automatic appointment of mediator, case filing, video, audio and text communication. It will have a friendly interface and be very easy to use even for those who have limited knowledge of technology and its download and use will be free for all refugees. The process will be conducted online by specially trained mediators and will be informal & flexible.


Petros Zourdoumis
Petros Zourdoumis is Founder of ODReurope, General Director of ADR point, a Fellow of the National Center for Technology and Dispute Resolution (USA) and project leader for ODR4Refugees (http://odr.info/petros-zourdoumis/).
Article

European Regulation on Online Dispute Resolution

A Comment on Its Enforcement in Italy

Journal International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, Issue 2 2017
Keywords European Regulation, ODR, ADR, Italian enforcement
Authors Rebecca Berto
AbstractAuthor's information

    The European single market is a symbol of European integration. Certainly, the European internal market brings great opportunities to its citizens and professionals, especially when the European legislators enact new provisions in order to boost the internal market.
    In May 2013, the European legislator enacted two legislative measures, whose aim was to encourage the employment of out-of-court mechanisms in order to solve consumer disputes: the European Regulation establishing the Online Dispute Resolution interactive website and the Directive on Alternative Dispute Mechanisms. Taking its cue from the first report issued by the European Commission on the Online Dispute Resolution, this article focuses on the enforcement of the European Regulation in Italy and concludes that, due to legal incongruence, no enforcement means have been dictated in order to sanction infringements to the European Regulation carried out by Italian professionals.


Rebecca Berto
Rebecca Berto is Lawyer with the European Consumer Centre - Italy: d.jur. University of Padua, Pg. Dipl. International Dispute Resolution (Arbitration) Queen Mary University – London, admitted to the Italian Bar. The views expressed herein are solely the author’s and do not represent either the opinion of ECC-Italy or of its host structures or of any other of its public financers.
Article

Negotiating Co-Authorship, Ethically and Successfully

Journal International Journal of Conflict Engagement and Resolution, Issue 1 2017
Keywords negotiation, ethics, academia, mentorship, authorship
Authors Andrea Schneider and Rachel Gur-Arie PhD
AbstractAuthor's information

    Authorship is a feature of career success and is relevant for practically all health science fields. Yet negotiating co-authorship is one of the most difficult processes academics encounter. The stakes are high, issues can be complex, and negotiators’ motivations are often multifaceted. The tools presented in this article – preparation, relationship development, and communication – can be used to increase the likelihood of a successful negotiation. Through the use of a case study, this article illustrates how a typical junior colleague can negotiate with their mentor. Additionally, this article outlines various standards of co-authorship to ensure that published authorship reflects appropriate standards of the field. The goal is for academics to be able to negotiate not only effectively, but also ethically.


Andrea Schneider
Professor Andrea Kupfer Schneider is the Director of the Dispute Resolution Program, Marquette University Law School.

Rachel Gur-Arie PhD
Rachel Gur-Arie is a PhD candidate in Health Systems Management within the School of Public Health at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Be’er Sheva, Israel.

Ielyzaveta Lvova
Associate professor, Odessa Regional Institute of Public Administration, National Academy for Public Administration, Office for the President of Ukrane, Odessa, Ukraine.

Tamás Molnár
Legal research officer on asylum, migration and borders, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna; adjunct professor of public international law and EU migration law, Corvinus University of Budapest, Institute of International Studies.

Viktor Rák
Legal advisor of the Hungarian National Chamber of Civil Law Notaries.

Tamás Balogh
Legal advisor of the Hungarian National Chamber of Civil Law Notaries.

Blanka Ujvári
PhD researcher at Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Budapest.

Christine Byron
Lecturer in Law, Cardiff University.

    A recent decision by the Labour Court found that a policy requiring employees to speak English in the workplace constituted discrimination on grounds of national origin but was objectively justifiable.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is a Senior Associate at Mason Hayes & Curran.
Case Reports

2017/30 Discrimination of workers’ representatives – burden of proof (LI)

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 3 2017
Keywords Discrimination (other), Discrimination of workers’ representatives
Authors Vida Petrylaite
AbstractAuthor's information

    The Lithuanian Supreme Court has found discrimination against an employee based on his trade union activities and ruled that there was no need for the burden of proof to shift to the employer.


Vida Petrylaite
Vida Petrylaite is a partner with CONFIDENCE Law Office, Vilnus (www.confidence.lt).
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 18 July 2017, case C 566/15 (Erzberger), Free movement of workers

Konrad Erzberger – v – TUI AG, German case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 3 2017
Keywords Free movement of workers
Abstract

    The exclusion of employees of a group, employed outside of Germany, from the right to vote and stand as candidates in elections of employee representatives on the supervisory board of the German parent company, is not contrary to the free movement of workers.

    The OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal purpose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument.
    The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is reasonable to conclude’ that a benefit (granted by a tax treaty) was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement/transaction. This requirement contains two elements: the reasonableness test and the principal purpose test.
    In literature it is observed that (i) the reasonableness test of the PPT rule could be contrary to the European Union’s principle of legal certainty; (ii) that the OECD PPT rule gives the tax authorities too much discretion and, therefore, is not in line with EU law and (iii) there is doubt whether the OECD PPT rule contains a genuine economic activity test and therefore is in contravention of the abuse of law case law of the CJEU.
    In this contribution, I defend that none of the above-mentioned reasons the OECD PPT rule is contrary to EU law. The only potential problem I see is that the OECD PPT rule is broader (no artificiality required) compared to the GAARs in Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive and the Parent–Subsidiary Directive.


Dennis Weber
Dennis Weber is a professor of European corporate tax law at the University of Amsterdam and director and founder of the Amsterdam Centre for Tax Law (ACTL).
Case Reports

2017/12 Court of Appeal rejects argument that Christmas strikes are unlawful under EU law (UK)

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 2 2017
Keywords Collective labour law, industrial actions, unions
Authors Vince Toman and David Hopper
AbstractAuthor's information

    The Court of Appeal has confirmed that industrial action called with the object or purpose of infringing the cross-border freedom to establish and receive services would be unlawful. It rejected the argument that industrial action would be unlawful if it made it unattractive for foreign companies to operate in the UK or if cross-border services might potentially be disrupted. These wider tests would be inconsistent with European case law on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (‘TFEU’) and would be incompatible with proper protection of the right to strike.


Vince Toman

David Hopper
Vince Toman and David Hopper are respectively Head of the Trade Union and Collective Employment Law Group and Senior Associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 24 November 2016, case C-443/15 (Parris), Sex discrimination

David L. Parris – v – Trinity College Dublin and Others, Irish Case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2017
Keywords Discrimination, Sex discrimination
Abstract

    The ECJ found that a gay lecturer was not unlawfully discriminated against under an occupational pension scheme that did not entitle those over a certain age or sexual orientation to claim a survivor’s benefit for their (same-sex) civil partner or spouse.

ECJ Court Watch

ECJ (Grand Chamber) 21 December 2016, case C-201/15 (AGET Iraklis), Collective redundancies

Anonymi Geniki Etairia Tsimenton Iraklis (AGET Iraklis) – v – Ypourgos Ergasias, Koinonikis Asfalisis kai Koinonikis Allilengyis; intervener: Enosi Ergazomenon Tsimenton Chalkidas, Greek case

Journal European Employment Law Cases, Issue 1 2017
Keywords Collective redundancies
Abstract

    Where no agreement is reached with employee representatives on a planned collective redundancy, the employer must try to obtain permission from the Minister for Labour – who rarely gives it. The employer in this case argued successfully that this was a serious obstacle to its to freedom to establish and conduct business in Greece.


Jie Long
Faculty of Law, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, longjie@hku.hk.
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