Search result: 18 articles

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Year 1998 x
Article

La politique européenne de la Belgique

Les années 1970-1996: entre orthodoxie et pragmatisme

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1998
Authors Christian Franck
Abstract

    The 1969-72 period has shown an evolution in the belgian european policy. White instituional orthodoxy and federalist teleology had prevailed in the sixties, some pragmatism has been added since Prime minister Gaston Eyskens met President Pompidou in Paris in june 1972. Belgium accepts the launching of a cooperation among the national foreign policies outside the sphere of the EC institutions; regular summits of heads of government are also agreed on. Pragmatism doesn't weaken however the belgian concerns about orthodoxy. Belgian diplomacy is claiming a twofold orthodoxy. The "de lege fata" one insists on the compliance of the institutional practises with the legal provisions of the Treaties and on the extension of the scope of the EC policies by using the faculty provided by art. 235 EC. The constant refusal of the so called "compromis de Luxembourg" and the recurrent plea for the qualified majority voting, or the emphasis put on the powers of the Commission illustrate this kind of orthodoxy. The "de lege ferenda" orthodoxy consists of preventing institutional evolutions from closing the road to the long term federalist aims belgian diplomacy is still working towards for European integration. Hence some dilemmas between pragmatism on short term issues and some dogmatic rigidities which refer to the federalist finality. The discussion about twofold orthodoxy is grounded on a belgian positions' analysis on european affairs which covers the period from the end of the sixties to the belgian positions at the 1996 IGC. By the future perspective of a broader EU enlargement, Belgium will also face a new challenge: will its relative political weight be decreasing in the same time theUnion will extend? Which will be the price for accepting less Belgium in a larger Union?


Christian Franck
Article

De Euro-Belgische ambtenaren

Een paradoxale prestatie

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1998
Authors Guido Dierickx
Abstract

    The Belgian civil servants who are involved in the working groups of the European Council of Ministers on a full-time basis are a small elite corps which is hardly typical for the Belgian civil service as a whole. Most of its members belong to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or to other ministries as these have delegates in the Permanent Representation. Their responsibilities too are rather different from those of the normal Belgian civil servant. The latter are typically engaged in the implementation of the policies designed by their political masters, the farmer are largely autonomous policy makers and negotiators, though mostly in matters of minor political importance. In one regard though, these Euro-Belgians are still recognizable as typically Belgian. Their political culture is characterized, tough to a lesser degree than that of the other senior civil servants in Belgium, by a technocratism which is very distrustful of political actors and by a remarkable level of distrust of their organisational infrastructure. Such a culture should lead to a poor performance in the working groups of the Council of Ministers. But it does not. That is the paradox this contribution intends to examine.


Guido Dierickx
Article

Space Resources: First Come First Served

Managing Space Resources and Revitalizing Space Treaties

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 1998
Authors J.W. Benson

J.W. Benson
Article

Confidence Building Measures Using Space Resources

Confidence Building and Commercial Interests in Space

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 1998
Authors S.E. Doyle

S.E. Doyle
Article

The 1998 European Initiative in the UNCOPUOS Legal Subcommittee to Improve the Registration Convention

Managing Space Resources and Revitalizing Space Treaties

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 1 1998
Authors M. Benkö and K.U. Schrogl

M. Benkö

K.U. Schrogl
Article

Secured Interests in Satellites

Confidence Building and Commercial Interests in Space

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 1998
Authors J.A. Heilbock

J.A. Heilbock
Article

Effects of U.S. Policies on the International Trade in Launch Services

Confidence Building and Commercial Interests in Space

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 2 1998
Authors H.P. van Fenema

H.P. van Fenema
Article

Developments in International Telecommunications

Legal Aspects of Navigation Satellites, GPS, Space Applications and Space Uses

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1998
Authors F. Lyall

F. Lyall
Article

Legal and Regulatory Issues for Passenger Space Travel

Legal Aspects of Navigation Satellites, GPS, Space Applications and Space Uses

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1998
Authors P. Collins and K. Yonemoto

P. Collins

K. Yonemoto
Article

The European Initiatives and Programmes for Satellite Navigation

Legal Aspects of Navigation Satellites, GPS, Space Applications and Space Uses

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1998
Authors M. Ferrazzani

M. Ferrazzani
Article

The Privatization of INMARSAT

Legal Aspects of Navigation Satellites, GPS, Space Applications and Space Uses

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 3 1998
Authors D. Sagar

D. Sagar
Article

Cultural and Institutional Aspects

17th IAA-IISL Scientific-Legal Roundtable in Torino, Italy, 1997: "SETI and Society"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1998
Authors S.E. Doyle

S.E. Doyle
Article

SETI and International Law

17th IAA-IISL Scientific-Legal Roundtable in Torino, Italy, 1997: "SETI and Society"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1998
Authors F. Lyall

F. Lyall
Article

Search Strategies: SETI Activity and Society

17th IAA-IISL Scientific-Legal Roundtable in Torino, Italy, 1997: "SETI and Society"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1998
Authors R. Malina

R. Malina
Article

Review of the Status of Outer Space Treaties: 1967 Outer Space Treaty

1998 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 37th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Review of the Status of the Outer Space Treaties"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1998
Authors S.E. Doyle

S.E. Doyle
Article

The European Space Agency and the Astronauts' Policy

1998 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 37th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Review of the Status of the Outer Space Treaties"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1998
Authors G. Lafferranderie

G. Lafferranderie
Article

1972 Liability Convention, Enhancing Adherence and Effective Application

1998 IISL-ECSL Space Law Symposium Held on the Occasion of the 37th Session of the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS in Vienna, Austria: "Review of the Status of the Outer Space Treaties"

Journal International Institute of Space Law, Issue 5 1998
Authors F.G. von der Dunk

F.G. von der Dunk
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