Search result: 4 articles

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Year 2012 x
Article

Trade in Oil and Export Restrictions

Taking the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries to the WTO Court

Journal European Journal of Law Reform, Issue 1 2012
Keywords WTO, dispute settlement, US, OPEC, oil
Authors Bashar H. Malkawi
AbstractAuthor's information

    The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), as seen by observers, resembles a greedy international cartel that preys on the public in defiance of market competition. High oil prices are considered as a principal cause of the US economic woes. Some US congressmen pinpointed OPEC’s alleged inconsistency with the World Trade Organization (WTO) rules and called upon the US administration to open dispute settlement proceedings against OPEC. This article discusses the legal issues arising from a US action at the WTO level against OPEC countries. The first sections of the article comprise an institutional review of the WTO and OPEC. The article addresses the interplay between the WTO and OPEC. It then illustrates the central provisions of the WTO that can be used for arguments and counter-arguments concerning such a WTO action. It culminates with a set of concluding thoughts.


Bashar H. Malkawi
Associate Professor of Commercial Law, University of Sharjah, UAE. He received his LL.B from Yarmouk University in 1999, LL.M from University of Arizona College of Law in 2001, S.J.D from American University, Washington College of Law in 2005. The author would especially like to thank the two outside reviewers for their direction, feedback and invaluable insight. He also thanks the law journal editors and staff writers for their hard work in polishing the article.

M.J. Stanford
Immediate past Deputy Secretary-General International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (Unidroit) This paper is based on the author’s article “The availability of a new form of financing for commercial space activities: the extension of the Cape Town Convention to space assets” published in the Cape Town Convention Journal, 2012, pp. 109 et seq.
Article

Access_open Public and Private Regulation

Mapping the Labyrinth

Journal The Dovenschmidt Quarterly, Issue 1 2012
Keywords private regulation, regulatory impact assessment, standard-setting, voluntary certification, sustainabbility reporting, effectiveness indicators, governance indicators
Authors Fabrizio Cafaggi and Andrea Renda
AbstractAuthor's information

    Private governance is currently being evoked as a viable solution to many public policy goals. However, in some circumstances it has shown to produce more harm than good, and even disastrous consequences like in the case of the financial crisis that is raging in most advanced economies. Although the current track record of private regulatory schemes is mixed, policy guidance documents around the world still require that policymakers award priority to self- and co-regulation, with little or no additional guidance being given to policymakers to devise when, and under what circumstances, these solutions can prove viable from a public policy perspective. With an array of examples from several policy fields, this paper approaches regulation as a public-private collaborative form and attempts to identify possible policy tools to be applied by public policymakers to efficiently and effectively approach private governance as a solution, rather than a problem. We propose a six-step theoretical framework and argue that IA techniques should: (i) define an integrated framework including both the possibility that private regulation can be used as an alternative or as a complement to public legislation; (ii) Involve private parties in public IAs in order to define the best strategy or strategies that would ensure achievement of the regulatory objectives; and (iii) Contemplate the deployment of indicators related to governance and activities of the regulators and their ability to coordinate and solve disputes with other regulators.


Fabrizio Cafaggi
European University Institute, Fiesole Università di Trento (F. Cafaggi).

Andrea Renda
LUISS Guido Carli, Rome; Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels; European University Institute, Fiesole (A. Renda).

Hiroyuki Kishindo
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan, kishindo.hiroyuki@jaxa.jp.
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