Search result: 37 articles

Year 1974 x

Un événement politique méconnu

le congrès libéral progressiste des 29 et 30 mai 1887

Journal Res Publica, Issue 5 1974
Authors J. Gaillard

    During the 19th century, the Belgian Liberal Party was frequently divided between its «progressive» or «radical» wing and its conservative majority.Between 1880 and 1900, the program of the progressive liberalism was worked out and stated precisely during seven political meetings.The one hold in 1887 put the headlines into shape, chiefly: big extension of the franchise, compulsory education, disestablishment of the Church. In spite of their small number of members, the progressists were surely most influential upon the adoption of the universal franchise.

J. Gaillard

La guerre des six jours et la presse Française

essai d'analyse

Journal Res Publica, Issue 5 1974
Authors Paul Henriet

    The present essay aims at defining the attitude of the French press towards the conflict of May/]une 1967 between Israel and Arab countries.As a thematic analysis of a representative sample of daily, weekly and monthly newspapers, covering bath periods of the preceding diplomatic antagonism and of the actual war, the article comprises a number of quantitative approaches which, as they complement each other, lead to certain conclusions in respect, on the one hand, of the particular newspaper analysed and, on the other hand, of the complete sample under observation. This method makes it possible to bring to light the fundamental pro-Israel and anti-Arab leanings of the sample, as they reflect the pre-existent attitudes of French public opinion. It also reveals that the only pro-Arab and anti-Israel newspaper are those that belang at the far left end of the sample.These factors lead to hypothesize that the disposition which favoured Israel sprung in fact not from any special sympathy towards Jewry, but from a feeling of bond with a mode of civilisation as represented by the Western and pro-Western characteristics of Israel.

Paul Henriet

Bernard Cazes

    Although taking place mainly in the private sector, the French arms industry is a very tightly controlled activity, and decision making on arms exports are made within a general framework which takes info account the chief aspects of France global policy.Mercantile considerations are not the main factor in French arms exports. Actually, France has used very counsciously and systematically its arms exports to further its global policy, especially its ambition to build Europe around itself.However, the effective contribution of these arms exports to the attainment of France main goals has been rather dubious and volatile.

Yohanan Manor

Encore les cabinets ministériels

Journal Res Publica, Issue 5 1974
Authors Baron Snoy et d'Oppuers

    The ministerial cabinets are growing in number and in cost. They constitute a nuisance for the good functioning of the civil service. However, there is a functional necessity for the Minister to dispose of a reduced personal staff.The suppression of ministerial cabinets would hurt the feelings of the political parties who are eager to use them as a source of power and of influence which they consider as an electoral asset. The only practical solution is to keep under strict control the number of the cabinet members and to convince the political parties that they have a fundamental interest to keep a high standard of functioning for the civil service.

Baron Snoy et d'Oppuers

M. Spaak et M. Harmel

Dix années de politique étrangère belge, deux hommes, une même politique

Journal Res Publica, Issue 5 1974
Authors Luc Desmedt

    P.H. Spaak and P. Harmel originnally were differently indoctrinated. They had very little in common, except that they both were brilliant diplomats. In addition they had the ability to lead Belgiums foreign policy. But due to Belgiums international context, «The continuation» was the most characteristic guidline in both men's successive policy. Owing to the force of circumstances, it is certainly not paradoxical that Belgium's options in the field of foreign policy are in any case limited.

Luc Desmedt

L'évolution de l'opinion publique belge


Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors Nicole Delruelle-Vosswinkel

    The article presents some of the results of public opinion polls that were carried out as a part of a panel poll, organized by the «Institut Universitaire de Sondage d'Opinion Publique» and covering 1.500 belgian voters.The article specifically deals with the following items - the meaning of the votes shift between 1971 and 1974 (as far as voting intentions were concerned) ;- the moment at which voting decisions crystallized in the 10-3-74 elections;- the way in which the political climate was perceived, and the predominant cares voters had before the elections;- the impact of certain attitudes on votes shifting: an analysis of these processes (specifically by the latent class approach).

Nicole Delruelle-Vosswinkel

De verkiezingspropaganda na een "onverwachte" parlements-ontbinding

Enkele communicatiewetenschappelijke en -strategische beschouwingen

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors Guido Fauconnier

    The purpose of this paper is to devote, from the viewpoint of mass communication research and persuasion strategy, some reflections on thepolitical propaganda campaign conducted after an unexpected dissolutionof the Parliament. The analysis starts from a operational communicationmodel.The unexpected character of the dissolution carriers several problems of communication strategy: the basic data of the marketing situation are deficient, the delimitation ( with priorities) of target audiences is problematic, the choice of manipulative variables becomes a matter of pure experience.In this context the author gives bis opinion about the campaigns elaborated on the occasion of the last parliamentary elections in Belgium: he ascertains a normal link to the actual social and cultural problems of the Belgian society, an orientation to a large and heterogeneous audience, but also a lack of central themes in the propaganda.The proposed operational model, in part inspired by advertising theories (Warneryd-Nowak), seems to be a useful complement to the classic lists of practical recommendations drawn up in propaganda literature.

Guido Fauconnier

    The elections for the provincial councils, held on the 10th of March 1974, has shown results that are quite similar to those shown by the parliamentary elections. Traditional parties keep or reinforce their positions, whereas the linguistic parties suffer a setback-clear-cut in the case of the Rassemblement Wallon and the Front Démocratique des Bruxellois, but only limited for the Volksunie, which has a long-standing Flemish-nationalist tradition.

Raymond Costard

Les élections législatives du 10 mars 1974

Analyse des résultats

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors William Fraeys

William Fraeys

    People in Belgium want to simplify the electoral laws. The responsible department (Ministère de l'Intérieur) has a project which is presented as being neutral, having no political implications. The authors compare the results of the last elections (March 74) computed according to several systems, including the new project. Their conclusion is that the new project is politically oriented: it favours the big parties.The authors propose a new system of ballot which is really neutral, and they show it by a simulation on the results of the elections since 1954.Their system is simple and easily treated by computer.

J. Beaufays

    The 1974 election-period has been sustained intensively by the BRT (Belgian Radio and Television Corporation). The Board of Directors decided to do sa in order to accomplish the corporation's task of objective information.The political parties also used intensively the extra air-time accorded by the same Board of Directors, for their clection-campaign. As for all political parties all over the world, radio and even more television air-time, is seen as an indispensable instrument for diffusing party-coloured information.

Herman Santy

Le système des partis en Belgique

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors A.P. Frognier and P. Delfosse

    This article gives an account of the belgian party system in 1974. It concludes at the existence of a «multipartist» system. It also examines the ideological character of the party system. For this purpose, it studies the electoral platforms of all the parties. From a semiotics viewpoint, it isolates a number of semantic axes. After a binary coding, it factor-analyses the results. Two main factors are extracted «ideological mixing» and conservative - progressist position.

A.P. Frognier

P. Delfosse

Les polls électoraux

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors André Philippart

André Philippart

Overeenkomst en tegenstelling in de verkiezingsplatformen

Een analyse van de verkiezingsprogramma's via de techniek van het programmogram

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors Guy Tegenbos

    This article aims to present a framework for comparative analysis ofelectoral programs.A content analysis of the programs of the last Belgian elections delivered a number of program items, classified in policy sectors: financial, cultural, social, economic, internal and foreign policy. For each item of each party was checked up if each other party agreed or disagreed with it, or didn't give an opinion upon it. These data were the basis to calculate the consensus and dissension between the parties.These data were also the basis to construct the programmogram, a graph representing the extent of the programs of the parties, their originality, the importance attached to each policy sector, and the consensus and dissension between the parties.

Guy Tegenbos

    Until 1971 the Belgian Socialist Party (BSP) was the only political, party that closely and systematically involved its members in the designation of socialist candidates for parliamentary elections. This was achieved through a system of pre-elections within the party («polling»).The trend away from «polling», already perceptible in 1971, has asserted itself in 1974. Hardly 56 % of the elected members of Parliament owe their seat to their place on the candidate-list at the «poll».More than 40 % of them were designated by a party-congress. This change is noticeably true in Flanders.Nevertheless the choice between a «poll» and a congress as a decisionmaking technique is not relevant as to the renewal of parliamentary groups. This renewal is mainly due to the introduction of an age-limit (65) and of a gain in seats. Research also showed a growing lack of interest of party members in the composition of candidate-lists: participation has again slightly declined.

Jan Ceuleers

Premiers aperçus sur la campagne législative 1974 à la RTB

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3-4 1974
Authors Gabriel Thoveron, Claude Geerts, Clairette Delmotte e.a.

    This paper represents a first approach of the campaign in the frenchspeaking radio and television. A thorough study will be done later. You will read here: - the different kinds of electoral programmes; - the topics of the campaign through the questions asked by the audience, the questions selected by the journalists, the topics of the political platforms; - the critique (the reactions of the press af ter the programmes); - the audience (how many people looked at the political programmes and why); - the «case François» (a political journalist working for the television became candidate for a political party).

Gabriel Thoveron

Claude Geerts

Clairette Delmotte

Roger Deschamps

José-Manuel Nobre-Correia

Jacqueline Thoveron

    Politicization of administration is generally held to be an innovative process: the administration seems to strip off its neutral phenotype. This false notion stems from a model of analysis that ignores the administration'senvironmental interrelations and the administrative function.A functional systems model is proposed which is capable of avoiding normative implications. This model helps to understand politicization of administration as an adaptive process of the capitalist state which is thus reacting to trends of economization and "socialization" of politics. The adaptation is held to be partially successful only. Political and administrativeproblem-solving tends to come out more and more critical. The only solution to this - extended participation - cannot be conceded for system's reasons.

Volker Ronge


Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1974
Authors Editor Res Publica

Editor Res Publica

Léo Moulin
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