Search result: 36 articles

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Year 1979 x

    During the last two years Belgian television has broadcast five parliamentary debates in full and live. They were either the first appearance of a new government or important government declarations. These broadcasts were encouraged by the president of the Lower House, who hoped to familiarize a large part of the electorate with the work of its members. Audience research has shown however that interest is low and is decreasing. On the other hand, cameras have definitely influenced members' conduct: they attuned their appearances to the television audience, in tone, in wording and in argumentation. Sessions were also drastically prolonged. Conclusion: neither the broadcasting authority nor parliament have any interest in the live and full broadcasting of parliamentary debates. It is much to be preferred to limit them to a summary, put in an appropriate context in a special program.


Jan Ceuleers
Article

Autorité politique et informatique du secteur public

De l'outil de gestion aux glissements de pouvoir

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 1979
Authors Robert Dethier
Abstract

    The analysis deals with the power shifts (caused by the introduction of data-collecting and processing techniques) that can be observed in various relationships: between data-specialists and other civil servants; between different departments within the same Ministry; between different Ministries; between centra! and local administrations; between legislative and executive bodies; between politicians and civil servants. The theoretical bases for the analysis are drawn from the sociology of organizations. The observation itself draws upon the Belgian administration. It leads to more general questions of political science concerning the evolution of some power relationships. What do slogans like «data power» or «computer revolution» mean in real life? The facts are sometimes surprising, and practice at a great distance from theory.


Robert Dethier
Article

Le gel de l'accord d'Athènes

La Communauté et la Grèce

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 1979
Authors Spyros Haritos
Abstract

    The article analyses the problems raised by the decision of the European Community to «freeze» its relations with Greece following the military takeover on 21 April 1967. The author first outlines the main features of the development of the attitude adopted by Community institutions during the military dictatorship, then attempts to define the economic and political impact of the Community position. He goes on to examine whether the «day-to-day management» of the Agreement influenced the speeding-up of the new Greek government. We know that the Treaty of Accession was signed on 28 May 1979 in Athens. According to the author, the role played by the Community in the seven yearsof the «freeze» (21 April 1967 to 24 July 1974) was an important factor in speeding up Greece's request for accession.


Spyros Haritos
Article

La Nonciature Micara

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 1979
Authors Wladimir S. Plavsic
Abstract

    Cardinal Clemente Micara (1879-1965) has been papal nuncio in Belgium from 1923 until 1946. The aim of this article is to show the influence of this prelate on the Belgian political life. This research is essentially based on the correspondance that nuncio Micara exchanged with the late cardinal Van Roey, primate of Belgium. The Holy See ignored the «Flemish question» and Msgr. Micara confirmed his superiors in this position.


Wladimir S. Plavsic
Article

Un paradoxe historique

la social-démocratie allemande inspiratrice du bolchevisme

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 1979
Authors Georges Goriely

Georges Goriely
Article

Luxembourg

A case study of legislation in a mini-state

Journal Res Publica, Issue 4 1979
Authors Martin A. Wing
Abstract

    Whilst Luxembourg may be classified as a mini-state, its small size and population have not removed «politics» from public administration. Having outlined the legislative system, this article examines in detail the passage of the legislation for direct elections to the European Parliament focusing on the roles and functions of the relevant actors and institutions. This case study approach reveals a smooth parliamentary stage for legislation concealing a set of devices for resolving contentious or troublesome issues: special ad hoc committees to advise on legislative drafts; parliamentary committees; splitting legislation so that legislators are formally committed to a principle before they have seen the details; the use of delaying tactics to preclude discussion of alternatives. In addition to demonstrating these, the case also examines the effectiveness of the three main institutions, the Council of State, the Chamber of Deputies and the Government, particularly the predominance ofthe latter, on major issues. In contradistinction, however, the Council of State, despite its formally weak status, is shown to exercise a positive influence.


Martin A. Wing
Article

De fysiocratie

toonaangevend politiek en sociaal-economisch stelsel in het Frankrijk van de XVIIIde eeuw

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 1979
Authors Pieter De Meyere
Abstract

    In France the XVIIIth century was characterized by the Enlightenment as a philosophical phenomenon and Physiocracy as an expression of new economic thinking. But the Physiocrats were not merely a school of economic thought; they were also a school of political action. Kings, princes and high public servants were among their pupils. The great French Revolution itself was influenced by their writings. And the force of their work is still not wholly sprent. In order to appreciate the theory and significance of the Physiocracy it is necessary to take into account the circumstances of its time. Physiocracy is a doctrine which esteems that agriculture is of more importance than industry and commerce. In this article following subjects of the physiocratic doctrine are dealt with: the natural order, property and liberty; the relations between the government and the individual citizen; the theory of the produit net and the Tableau Economique of François Quesnay. The evaluation also includes the question about the expansion of Physiocracy. Indeed, it had many followers in several countries of Europe and was also the first real School of economic thinking. By its systematic approach, Physiocracy established the economy as a science. All the aspects of Physiocracy which have been mentioned above are intimately bound together and are in several aspects the economic precursor of the French Revolution.


Pieter De Meyere

    This article gives a survey of results of research concerning effects of public policy in the Netherlands. This survey is preceded by a summary of some important American projects (Equality of Educational Opportunity, Head Start, the Negative income tax). The Dutch research reported concerns effects of educational and housing policy on income distribution, effects of sururbanization policy, participation policy, and still other policies. In both countries the dominant conclusion is that the goals of public policy are at least partially realized by the means chosen. However, the conclusion that the welf are state is totally failing would go to far. Research concerning effects of public policy is still rare. Moreover, it is clear that some goals are realized at least in part by the chosen means. When public policy appears not to be effective, this can be explained from several factors: the contents of policy and the underlying theory, the policy process, the society, the research, and a view which is toonarrow because it takes only short term effects of one particular policy program into account.


Andries Hoogerwerf

Editor Res Publica

    The aim of this article is to provide some historical insights about the origins of the three traditional Belgian politica[ families (the catholic, the liberal and the socialist) from the independance of the country to 1914. It shows the dynamic of a growing institutional stratification, due to the competition between the different families, trying to take the popular masses in charge, or by manipulation or by self representation. By that way, this research does put the historical basis of the problem of the movement for the fusion of the «progressists» and the trade unions fronts.


Pascale Delfosse
Article

Referendum in Andenne en Tessenderlo

Statistische interpretatie van de uitslagen

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 1979
Authors Alfons Laporte
Abstract

    A referendum was held on October 1st, 1978 at Andenne, a municipality in the French-speaking part of Belgium, on the settlement of a nuclear plant. A referendum on the settlement of an ecologically noxiousindustry was held at Tessenderlo, a municipality in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, on March 25th, 1979. These referenda are unique in their kind in Belgium. They show a very large similarity bath in theirset-up and their results. The turn-out can be considered satisfying high, especially since compulsory voting could not be imposed. The votes cast were mainly nays.


Alfons Laporte
Article

Les élections européennes de 1979

Analyse des résultats pour la Belgique

Journal Res Publica, Issue 3 1979
Authors William Fraeys
Abstract

    This article analyses the results recorded in Belgium in connection with the election of 10 june 1979 for the European Parliament. A first fact that should be brought under the attention is undoubtedly the decrease in the turnout at the poll, in spite of the legal obligation to vote, as well as the considerable augmentation of blank and void votes. One in five of the Belgian electors did not express his opinion. The results in the Walloon part of the country reveal a setback of the Left, votes having swung especially from the Socialists, although also from the Christian Democrat Party to the Enveronmentalists, the «Rassemblement Wallon» (Walloon Federalists) and in a less degree to the Liberals. In the Flemish cantons, the great winner was the Flemish Christian Democrat Party (CVP), partly thanks to Mr. Tindemans' personal success. The Socialists succeeded in interrupting the downward move, started several years before, but the Liberals receded as did the nationalist parties (Volksunie, Vlaamse Volkspartij). The Environmentalists are progressing. In Brussels, the Liberals are strongly moving forward as are the Flemish Christian Democrats, whereas the French-speaking Socialists (PS), Christian Democrats (PSC), Regionalists (FDF) and the Flemish Nationalist parties are losing ground. The election which did not stir much interest was marked by a «personalisation» of the votes, a phenomenon most spectacularly illustrated by Mr. Tindemans who obtained more than one million preference votes, viz. nearly 30 % of the valid votes in the Dutch-language constituency.


William Fraeys

    This theoretical study starts from the observation that nearly any social problem is hierarchically structured. In order to elucidate the importance of this hierarchical aspect for the eventual solution of the problem, the concepts «problem domain» and «context» are introduced. With respect to each problem the nature of the problem defining instance, the problem definition and the problem experience are considered under a double aspect: the three of them can be individual as well as collective. As for the problem itself a distinction is made between a subjective and an objective component. One also examines the elements that make a problem into a real social problem. Eventually one observes that each problem situation leads to the formation of a «field of power» involving various problem defining instances, each with its particular problem definition and problem experience. A valuable solution to any problem can hardly be reached without taking into account each of the forces in this field of power.


Luk Holvoet

Jozef Smits

    At the general elections in Belgium, the voter has the possibility to bring out either a vote for a party or a vote for a candidate of the party (a preferential vote). At the general elections of December 17, 1978 for the House of Representatives the voters have voted for 51,86 % by preference, whereas for the Senate 41,82 % of them have done so. The use of preferential votes is varying from one electoral district toanother: from 68,30 % in the district of Oudenaarde to 35,74 % in Bergen. There is also a difference from one political party to another. The highest percentage is obtained by the CVP-PSC (catholic party): 61,12 %; the lowest by the KPB-PCB (communist party): 27,34 %. The preferential votes individual candidates obtain differ widely, pointing out not only their popularity but also to a certain extend their political power.


Mark Deweerdt
Article

Recente economische ontwikkelingen in Vlaanderen

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1979
Authors Guido Van Gheluwe, Carlos Lisabeth and Etienne Mange
Abstract

    Since 1973 the world economy has been characterized by a relatively slow pace of expansion in output and trade, accompanied by high unemployment and strong inflationary pressures (stagflation). With this has gone an emerging energy problem, monetary instability, a growing pressure for protectionism, a declining demand for certain products and a change in the pattern of the international movement of labour and capital. In this article, the consequences of these international features for the Flemish economy are analysed. From this analysis, it has become clear that the international economic crisis has revealed more clearly the structural problems of the Flemish economy, especially in the field of economic growth, competitiveness, pattern of investments and industrial structure. This has resulted in a very high unemployment rate, which moreover will probably not disappear with an eventual improvement of theinternational economic situation: whereas the Flemish economy has gained largely from the oil based industrial expansion, it is not participating at present in the socalled third, by sofisticated technology led industrial revolution. Consequently, more and more labour-intensive activities are taken over by less developed countries, whereas some of the capital-intensive industrial sectors have to cope with a growing technological gap. To stem this unfavourable development, there is an urgent need for a powerful and planned structural policy, which must as a matter of priority force back the unemployment rate to an acceptable level. In this context, regionalisation might be a powerful instrument, as it offers to the regions the possibility of creating own solutions for their own problems.


Guido Van Gheluwe

Carlos Lisabeth

Etienne Mange
Article

Justitiebeleid in de jaren zeventig

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1979
Authors Luc Huyse, Lode Van Outrive, Cyriel Fynaut e.a.
Abstract

    The authors discuss «judicial» policy-making in the seventies by such various actors as police authorities, local and national government, the Bar associations, legal aid agencies, the judiciary, and prison authorities. They stress the quasi-absence of reliable statistical information, of good annual reports, and of the minimum goodwill of the authorities that would open this area for social science research. They also analyse some of the major decisions that have been made by the Belgian department of justice in the last ten years.


Luc Huyse

Lode Van Outrive

Cyriel Fynaut

Lieven Dupont

Tony Peters
Article

De politieke krisissen in 1978

de krisis van het politiek vertrouwen

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1979
Authors Marc Platel
Abstract

    The article describes the political crises of June and October 1978 in Belgium. For reasons connected with time and space, this contribution ends with the formation of the Vanden Boeynants transition-government, although even with the formation of the Martens-cabinet in April 1979the problems are not yet solved. The formation of this cabinet has been a long-drawn effort, hampered by substantial obstacles, that have been present since June 1978: the difficulties to elaborate both a crisis-management-policy and a consensus concerning a new constitution. Moreover, all this remains overshadowed by fear and distrust from the other political parties towards de Flemish christian-democrats, who usually succeeded in keeping their internal quarrels a really inside affair. The crisis of 1978 has proved on the other side, that the Egmont-Stuyvenberg agreement on the federalisation of Belgium was neither well-balanced nor mature.


Marc Platel

Editor Res Publica
Article

Bibliographie de l'année politique 1978

Journal Res Publica, Issue 2 1979
Authors Wladimir S. Plavsic

Wladimir S. Plavsic
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