European Journal of Policing Studies

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Issue 3, 2017 Expand all abstracts

Aims and Scope

Authors Antoinette Verhage, Lieselot Bisschop, Wim Hardyns e.a.

Antoinette Verhage

Lieselot Bisschop

Wim Hardyns

Dominique Boels

Police Reform and Power in Post Conflict Societies

A Conceptual Map for Analysis

Keywords power, police reform, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Community Oriented Policing, Development Assistance
Authors Shai André Divon
AbstractAuthor's information

    Post-conflict reconstruction and police reform are located in the security-development nexus where global and state power moves towards individuals. In recent years, there has been an increased investment by the EU and the UN to contribute to police reform in post conflict societies. This article offers a conceptual map for the analysis of power across contexts through police reform interventions in post conflict societies. It draws on various theories of power to explain the conceptual-contextual gap. This map facilitates the observation of the police as a technology of power and as a projector of power in post conflict societies. ‘Unintended-empowerment’ through power projection is introduced to explain how police as an organisation and policing as a practice are often undermined. The article concludes with an outline to assist the analysis of the conceptual-contextual gap in police reform interventions and outcomes in post conflict societies through power optics.

Shai André Divon
Dr. Shai André Divon is Researcher with the Department of International Environment and Development Studies (Noragric), Norwegian Univeristy of Life Sciences (NMBU). He has extensive military and security background and a PhD in Development Politics. His research and work experience is varied and interdisciplinary, and include work in Africa, Asia, The Middle East and North America. His research interests are focused on the analytics of power in society and through foreign assistance (corresp: shai.divon@nmbu.no).

Inter-organisational Relationships Addressing Transnational Criminality: Suggested Benchmarks

Intelligence and law enforcement inter-organisational relationship policy and practice benchmarks arising from case studies of Denmark, Finland and New Zealand

Keywords Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, intelligence, law enforcement, policy, practice, cooperation, coordination, collaboration
Authors Richard Shortt
AbstractAuthor's information

    Following over a decade of focus on terrorism and transnational criminality, how have three ‘intermediate capacity’ countries (Denmark, Finland and New Zealand) structured their intelligence and law enforcement inter-organisational relationships to respond to such wicked problems? This article presents the results of case studies regarding Denmark, Finland and New Zealand that examined the inter-organisational arrangements between the countries intelligence and law enforcement agencies. The case studies used publicly available secondary sources from the period 1 January 2007–31 December 2012 to obtain data for analysis. The data was analysed using research that had established the types of inter-organisational relationships organisations can have to determine the relationships occurring in each of the countries. The results of the case studies establish that the three countries are committed to a variety of cooperative, coordinated and collaborative relationships.

Richard Shortt
Australian Graduate School of Policing and Security, Charles Sturt University. Dr. Shortt was a serving police officer who most recently worked as a national security adviser in the Prime Minister’s department, as manager of New Zealand’s Combined Threat Assessment Group, and as a manager with the Organised and Financial Crime Agency. Dr. Shortt’s research interests are the inter-organisational relationships between organisations in response to ‘cross-boundary’ issues (corresp: rshortt@csu.edu.au).

Police custody delivery in the twenty-first century in England and Wales

Current arrangements and their implications for patterns of policing

Keywords police, police custody, civilianization, privatization, patterns of policing
Authors Layla Skinns, Amy Sprawson, Angela Sorsby e.a.
AbstractAuthor's information

    Since the 1980s, police custody in England and Wales has experienced civilianization and privatization of roles once performed by the police. The purposes of this paper are to explore these organisational arrangements and to reflect on what they reveal about patterns of policing in the 21st century. These matters are examined using a unique 2014 survey of custody managers who provided data on 213 suites across 41 police forces in England and Wales, and the Isle of Man. Findings are presented on the extent of civilianization and privatization of custody suites, the conditions of the suites in terms of their busyness and whether they were seen as ‘fit for purpose’ by staff, as well as on the most common types of custody suites and their features. These findings show that whilst civilianization was common-place, privatization was not; over two-thirds of custody suites were owned, managed and staffed by police officers or civilian detention officers employed by the police. As such, the research does not support the idea that there has been a transformation of policing, at least not with respect to who owns, manages and/or staffs custody suites in England and Wales, where the police still have a monopoly.

Layla Skinns
Layla Skinns is a Reader in Criminology in the Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law University of Sheffield, having previously worked at Cambridge University and King’s College London. She is currently the Principal Investigator on a four-year national study of ‘good’ police custody, which is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (corresp: L.Skinns@sheffield.ac.uk).

Amy Sprawson
Amy Sprawson completed an MPhil in Criminological Research at the University of Cambridge in 2013 and was a Research Assistant on the ‘good’ police custody study (2014-16), based at the Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield.

Angela Sorsby
Angela Sorsby is a Lecturer in Criminology in the Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, within which she has conducted research across a number of areas relating to crime and criminal justice. She currently principally teaches research methods and statistics and is involved in analysing the quantitative data from the ‘good’ police custody study.

Rivka Smith
Rivka Smith is currently a doctoral candidate in the Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, researching mental health and policing. In 2016, she worked as a Research Assistant on the ‘good’ police custody study and before that she completed a Master’s degree by research at Canterbury Christ Church University in the subject area of Policing.

Andrew Wooff
Andrew Wooff completed his PhD at the University of Dundee in 2014, after which he worked as a Research Associate on the ‘good’ police custody study, based at the Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield. He commenced a Lectureship in Criminology at Edinburgh Napier University in 2015.

Do police strategies help promote creative policing?

Keywords police, coordination mechanisms, strategy, Estonia
Authors Priit Suve
AbstractAuthor's information

    Police are expected to be creative, but also systematic. This paper asks the question whether police strategies help promote creative policing. Estonia is the case study in this analysis; a country which has a police force that never systematically employed any model of policing, and where the sphere of police is under-researched. Using a content analysis of legal documents, the models and strategies of policing were analyzed, and five general coordination mechanisms of the police (military, bureaucracy, professionalism, community orientation, and public-private orientation) hovering above strategies were recognized. These mechanisms were analyzed in light of the developments of strategic thinking with the aim to identify opportunities for a creative and innovative way of policing. The findings illustrate that the mechanisms have various potentials in supporting to find “blue oceans.” The article makes suggestions for further research on promoting creative policing.

Priit Suve
Priit Suve holds a PhD in State and Governance (Tallin University). He is affiliated to the Estonian Police and Border Guard and worksas a researcher in the School of Governance, Law and Society at the Tallin University. He has specialized in policing. He was awarded a BA in policing in 2002, and an MA in state and governance in 2009 from Tallinn University. Since 1991 he has been a police officer (corresp: priitsu@tlu.ee).

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